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Switching from XFCE4 to KDE Plasma

While I use Unity (7.5) and Ubuntu on my main laptop, on my travel laptop I instead use Artix Linux. Recently, I've been experiencing an issue where when I login to the lock screen after resume the device from sleep, I get a black screen.

Rather than digging around endlessly attempting to fix the issue (I didn't even know where to start), I've been meaning to try out KDE Plasma, which is 1 of a number of popular desktop environments available. To this end, I switched from XFCE (version 4) to KDE Plasma (5.24 as of the time of typing). this ultimately did end up fixing my issue (my travel laptop would win a prize for the most unusual software setup, as it originated as a Manjaro OpenRC machine).

Now that I've completed that switch (I'm typing this now in Atom running in the KDE Plasma desktop environment!), I thought I'd write up a quick post about the two desktop environments and my first impressions of KDE as compared to XFCE.

(Above: My KDE desktop environment, complete with a desktop background taken from CrossCode. The taskbar is at the top because this is how I had it configured in XFCE.)

The best way I suppose to describe the difference between XFCE and KDE is jumping from your garden pond into the local canal. While XFCE is fairly customisable, KDE is much more so - especially when it comes to desktop effects and the look and feel. I really appreciate the ability to customise the desktop effects to tune them to match what I've previously been used to in Unity (though I still use Unity on both my main laptop and my Lab PC at University) and XFCE.

One such example of this is the workspaces feature. You can customise the number of workspaces and also have them in a grid (just like Unity), which the GNOME desktop that comes with Ubuntu by default doesn't allow for. You can even tune the slide animation between desktops which I found helpful as the default animation was too slow for me.

It also has an enormous library of applications that complement the KDE desktop environment, with everything from your staples such as the terminal, an image viewer, and a file manager to more niche and specialised use-cases like a graph calculator and a colour contrast checker. While these can of course be installed in other desktop environments, it's cool to see such an expansive suite of programs for every conceivable use-case right there.

Related to this, there also appears to be a substantial number of widgets that you can add to your desktop. Like XFCE, KDE has a concept of panels which can hold 1 or more widgets in a line. This is helpful for monitoring system resources for example. While these are for the most part just as customisable as the main desktop environment, I wish that their dependencies were more clearly defined. On more than 1 occasion I found I was missing a dependency for some widget to work that wasn't mentioned in the documentation. upowerd is required for the battery indicator to work (which wasn't running due to a bug caused by a package name change from the great migration of Manjaro back in 2017), and the plasma-nm pacman package is required for the network / WiFi indicator to work, but isn't specified as a dependency when you install the plasma-desktop package. Clearly some work is needed in this area (though, to be fair, as I mentioned earlier I have a very strange setup indeed).

I'm continuing to find 1000 little issues with it that I'm fixing 1 by 1 - just while writing this post I found that dolphin doesn't support jumping to the address bar if you start typing a forward slash / (or maybe it was another related issue? I can't remember), which is really annoying as I do this all the time - but this is a normal experience when switching desktop environments (or, indeed, machines) - at least for me.

On the whole though, KDE feels like a more modern take on XFCE. With fancier graphics and desktop effects and what appears to be a larger community (measuring such things can be subjective though), I'm glad that I made the switch from XFCE to KDE - even if it was just to fix a bug at first (I would never have considered switching otherwise). As a desktop environment, I think it's comfortable enough that I'll be using KDE on a permanent basis on my travel laptop from now on.

A learning experience | AAAI-22 in review

Hey there! As you might have guessed, it's time for my review of the AAAI-22 conference(?) (Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence) I attended recently. It's definitely been a learning experience, so I think I've got my thoughts in order in a way that means I can now write about them here.

Attending a conference has always been on the cards - right from the very beginning of my PhD - but it's only recently that I have had something substantial enough that it would be worth attending one. To this end, I wrote a 2 page paper last year and submitted it to the Doctoral Consortium, which is a satellite event that takes place slightly before the actual AAAI-22 conference. To my surprise I got accepted!

Unfortunately in January AAAI-22 was switched from being an in-person conference to being a virtual conference instead. While I appreciate and understand the reasons why they made that decision (safety must come first, after all), it made some things rather awkward. For example, the registration form didn't mention a timezone, so I had to reach out to the helpdesk to ask about it.

For some reason, the Doctoral Consortium wanted me to give a talk. While I was nervous beforehand, the talk itself seemed to go ok (even though I forgot to create a slide somewhere in the middle) - people seemed to find the subject interesting. They also assigned a virtual mentor to me as well, who was very helpful in checking my slide deck for me.

The other Doctoral Consortium talks were also really interesting. I think the one that stood out to me was "AI-Driven Road Condition Monitoring Across Multiple Nations" by Deeksha Arya, in which the presenter was using CNNs to detect damage to roads - and found that a model trained on data from 1 country didn't work so well in another - and talked about ways in which they were going to combat the issue. The talk on "Creating Interpretable Data-Driven Approaches for Tropical Cyclones Forecasting" by Fan Meng also sounded fascinating, but I didn't get a chance to attend on account of their session being when I was asleep.

As part of the conference, I also submitted a poster. I've actually done a poster session before, so I sort of knew what to expect with this one. After a brief hiccup and rescheduling of the poster session I was part of, I got a 35 minute slot to present my poster, and had some interesting conversations with people.

Technical issues were a constant theme throughout the event. While the Doctoral Consortium went well on Zoom (there was a last minute software change - I'm glad I took the night before to install and check multiple different video conferencing programs, otherwise I wouldn't have made it), the rest of the conference wasn't so lucky. AAAI-22 was held on something called VirtualChair /, which as it turned out was not suited to the scale of the conference in question (200 people in each room? yikes). I found myself with the seemingly impossible task of using a website that was so laggy it was barely usable - even on my i7-10750H I bought back in 2020. While the helpdesk were helpful and suggested some things I could try, nothing seemed to help. This severely limited the benefit I could gain from the conference.

At times, there were also a number of communication issues that made the experience a stressful one. Some emails contradicted each other, and others were unclear - so I had to email the organisers at multiple points to request clarification. The wording on some of the forms (especially the registration form) left a lot to be desired. All in all, this led to a very large number of wasted hours figuring things out and going back and forth to resolve confusion.

It also seemed as though everyone appeared to assume that I knew how a big conference like this worked and what each event was about, when this was not the case. For example, after the start of the conference I received an email saying that they hoped I'd been enjoying the plenary sessions, when I didn't know that plenary sessions existed, let alone what they were about. Perhaps in future it would be a good idea to to distribute a beginner's guide to the conference - perhaps by email or something.

For future reference, my current understanding of the different events in a conference is as follows:

  • Doctoral Consortium: A series of talks - perhaps over several sessions - in which PhD students submit a 2 page paper in advance and then present their projects.
  • Workshop: A themed event in which a bunch of presenters submit longer papers and talk about their work
  • Tutorial: In which the organisers deliver content centred around a specific theme with the aim of educating the audience on a particular topic
  • Plenary session: While workshops and tutorials may run in parallel, plenary sessions are talks at a time when everyone can attend. They are designed to be general enough that they are applicable to the entire audience.
  • Poster session: A bunch of people create a poster about their research, and all of these posters are put up in a room. Then, researchers are designated specific sessions in which they stand by their poster and people come by and chat with them about their research. At other times, researchers are free to browse other researchers' papers.


Even though the benefit from talks, workshops, and other activities at the conference directly has been extremely limited due to technical, communication, and timezoning issues, the experience of attending this conference has been a beneficial one. I've learnt about how a conference is structured, and also had the chance to present my research to a global audience for the first time!

In the future, I hope that I get the chance to attend my first actual conference as I feel I'm much better prepared, and have a better understanding as to what I'm getting myself in for.

A review of graph / node based logic declaration through Blender

Recently, Blender started their Everything Nodes project. The first output of this project is their fantastic geometry nodes system (debuted in Blender 2.9, and still under development), which allows the geometry of an mesh (and the materials it uses) to be dynamically modified to apply procedural effects - or even declare a new geometry altogether!

I've been playing around with and learning Blender a bit recently for fun, and as soon as I saw the new geometry nodes system in Blender I knew it would enable to powerful new techniques to be applied. In this post, I want to talk more generally about node / graph-based logic declaration, and why it can sometimes make a complex concept like modifying geometry much easier to understand and work with efficiently.

Blender's geometry nodes at work.

(Above: Blender's geometry nodes at work.)

Manipulating 3d geometry carries more inherent complexity than it's 2d counterpart - programs such as Inkscape and GIMP have that pretty much sorted. To this end, Blender supplies a number of tools for editing 3d geometry, like edit mode and a sculpting system. These are powerful in their own right, but what if we want to do some procedural generation? Suddenly these feel far from the right tools for the job.

One solution here is to provide an API reference and allow scripts to be written to manipulate geometry. While blender does this already, it's not only inaccessible to those who aren't proficient programmers but large APIs often come with a steep learning curve (and higher cognitive load) - and it can often often be a challenge to "think in 3d" while programming (I know when I was doing the 3d graphics module at University this took some getting used to!).

In a sense, node based programming systems feel a bit like a functional programming style. Their strength is composability, in that you can quickly throw together a bunch of different functions (or nodes in this case) to get the desired effect. This reduces cognitive load (especially when there's an instantly updating preview available) as I mentioned earlier - which also has the side effect of reducing the barrier to entry.

Blender's implementation

There's a lot to like about Blender's implementation of a node-based editor. The visual cues for both the nodes themselves and the sockets great. Nodes are colour coded to group them by related functionality, and sockets are coloured according to data type. I would be slightly wary of issues with colourblind users though - while it looks like this has been discussed already, it doesn't seem like an easy solution has been implemented yet.

This minor issue aside, in Blender's new geometry nodes feature they have also made use of shape for the sockets to distinguish between single values and values that can change for each instance - which feels intuitive to understand.

When implementing a UI like this - as in API design - the design of the user interface needs to be carefully considered and polished. This is the case for Blender's implementation - and this only became apparent when I tried Material Maker's node implementation. While Material Maker is cool, I encountered a few minor issues which made the UI feel "clunky" when compared to Blender's implementation. For example:

  • Blender automatically wraps your cursor around the screen when you're scrubbing a value
  • Material Maker's preview didn't stack correctly underneath thee node graph, leading to visual artefacts


Blender's implementation of a node-based editor isn't all perfect though. Now that I've used it a while, I've observed a few frustrations I (and I assume others) have had - starting with the names of nodes. When you're first starting out, it can be a challenge to guess the name of the node you want.

For example, the switch node functions like an if statement, but I didn't immediately think of calling it a switch node - so I had to do a web search to discover this. To remedy this issue, each node could have a number of hidden alias names that are also searched, or perhaps each node has a short description in the selection menu that is also searched.

Another related issue is that nodes don't always do what you expect them to, or you're completely baffled as to what their purpose is in the first place. This is where great documentation is essential. Blender has documentation on every node in all their node editors (shader, compositor, and now geometry), but they don't always give examples as to how each node could be used. It would also be nice to see a short tooltip when I hover over a node's header explaining what it does.

In the same vein, it's also important to ensure a measure of consistency if you have multiple node editors. While this is mostly the case with Blender, I have noticed that a few nodes have different names across the compositing, shading, and geometry nodes workspaces (the switch node), and some straight up don't exist in other workspaces (the curve nodes). This can be the source of both confusion and frustration.


In conclusion, node-based editors are cool, and a good way to present a complex set of options in an easy to understand interface. While we've looked at Blender's implementation of a node-based editor, others do exist such as Material Maker.

Node-based interfaces have limitless possibilities - for example the Web Audio API is graph-based already, so I can only imagine how neat a graphical node-based audio editor could be - or indeed other ideas I've had including a node-based SVG generator (which I probably won't get around to experimenting with for a while).

As a final thought, a node-based flowchart could potentially be a good first introduction to logic and programming. For example, something a bit like Scratch or some other robotics control project - I'm sure something like this exists already.

If you know of a cool node-based interface, do leave a comment below.

Further reading

I bought a 3d printer! | Ender 3 v2 in review

Hey there! Recently, I bought an Ender 3 v2 3d printer, and now that I've used it enough I can talk about how I've found it. In this post, I'll be covering my thoughts on the 2 parts of 3d printing: the printer itself, and the slicing software that you run models through to turn them into G-code that the 3d printer understands.

A photo of my ender 3 v2 in my loft.

(Above: A photo of my ender 3 v2 in my loft.)

Let's start with the printer itself. Compared to my earlier efforts, it is immediately apparent that the design of the printer is considerably more robust. The frame has 2 pillars that are pretty much impossible to screw together incorrectly (it will be obvious at later steps if you do it incorrectly). The drive belt does not come pre-installed though, which I found to be the most frustrating part of the build.

The instruction booklet was noticeably more sparse and unclear than the Axis 3d instructions though - at some points I found myself having to look up some assembly instructions in order to understand them.

Once assembled, the printer was fairly easy to use. It has a colour display that as I understand it has a significantly higher resolution than previous models by Creality, which allows room for things like icons which greatly enhance the usability of the printer. I suspect that this upgrade may be due to the presence of a 32 bit microprocessor (likely an ARM) rather than an 8 bit one found in previous models, which is bound to come with more RAM etc as standard.

While the printer does come with a small amount of filament, I recommend buying a reel or 2 to use with it. Because the filament that comes with it is not on a reel, it easily tangles into nasty knots. I'm going to empty a reel of other filament first before winding the white filament that came with the printer back onto the empty reel.

Loading the filament takes practice. The advice in the booklet to cut a 45° angle on the end of the filament is really important, as otherwise it's impossible to load the filament past the NEMA motor filament loading mechanism. You have to get the end of the filament at just the right angle too to catch the PTFE tubing that leads to the hot end nozzle. This does get easier though with time - personally I think I need to make or purchase an extra clip-on light, as because my printer is in my loft it can be difficult to see what I'm doing when changing the filament.

Before you print, you have to manually level the bed of the printer. This is done by adjusting the wheels under the 4 corners of the build plate until a piece of plain paper on the build plate just gently scratches the tip of the nozzle. If the wheel in 1 corner doesn't appear to go far enough, try coming back to it and doing the other corners first. By adjusting the wheel in the other corners, the corner in question will be adjusted as well. It is for this reason it is also recommended to go around 2-3 times to make sure it's all level before beginning.

Printing itself is fairly simple. You insert the microSD card containing the G-code, preheat the nozzle to the right temperature, use the auto-home feature, and then select the file you want to print using the menu. I found that it's absolutely essential that you make sure that the build plate itself is as far back is possible - just touching the end-stop - as otherwise you get nasty loud belt grinding noises when it runs through the preamble at the beginning the G-code that causes the hot end to move all the way to the front of the build plate and back again.

Once a print is complete, I've found the supplied scraping tool to be sufficient to extract prints from the print bed. It's much easier to wait between 5 and 10 minutes for the heated bed to cool down before attempting to scrape it off - many prints can just be lifted off the bed with no scraping required (tested with some PLA filament).

Speaking of the build plate, it has a glass surface on top. My research suggested that this leads to a much more even surface on the bottom of prints, and I've certainly found this to be true. While you do have to be careful not to scratch it, the glass build plate the Ender 3 v2 comes with as standard is a nice addition to the printer.

To summarise, the Ender 3 v2 is a really nice solid printer. It's well built and relatively easy to setup and use, though filament organisation and anti-tangling will be the first project you work on when you start printing.

4 calibration cats! 3 in blue and 1 in white. The 3 in buile have some stringing issues.

(Above: 4 calibration cats! 3 in blue and 1 in white - the 3 in buile have some stringing issues. I'll definitely be printing more of these :D)

Ultimaker Cura

In order to print things, you need to use a slicer, which takes a 3D model (e.g. in a .obj or .stl file). My choice here is Ultimaker Cura. While it's in the default Ubuntu repositories, I found the AppImage on GitHub to be more up-to-date, so I packaged it into my apt repository.

Since Cura doesn't appear to have explicit support for the Ender 3 v2 just yet, I've been using the Ender 3 Pro profile instead, which seems to work just fine.

Cura has a large number of feature which are reasonably well organised for preparing prints. You can import the aforementioned .obj or .stl files and apply various transformations to imported models, such as translate, scale, and rotate. Cura also helpfully auto-snaps the bottom of a model to the virtual build plate for you, so you don't have to worry about getting the alignment right.

Saving and loading project files is annoying. It asks you to specify the place you want to save a project to every time you hit the save button and doesn't remember the location of the project file you saved to last (e.g. like a text editor, GIMP, LibreOffice, etc), which is really frustrating. I guess it's a better than crashing on save like the version of Cura in the default Ubuntu repositories though, so I'll count that as a win?

It would also be helpful if there was a system for remembering or bookmarking the commonly adjusted settings. I've found that I usually need to adjust the same small set of setting over and over again, and it's a pain having to find them in the "expert" settings list or using the search bar.

The preview mode is also useful, as it shows you precisely what your printer will actually end up printing. Great for checking that text is large / thick enough, that parts are large though or avoid losing detail, and for double checking that supports will print the way you expect (I recommend trying the tree mode for supports if you have to use them).

Given that I've used Blender before (exhibit a), it would be very nice to have the ability customise keyboard shortcuts or even better have a Blender keyboard shortcut scheme I could enable. Hitting R, then X, then 90 is just 1 example of a whole range of keyboard shortcuts I keep trying to use in Cura, but Cura doesn't support them.

On the whole, Cura works well as a slicer. It provides many tweakable settings for adjusting things based on the filament you're using (I need to look into making a profile for the filament I use at the moment, as I'm sure the next roll of filament will require different settings). The 3d preview window is intuitive and easy to use. While the program does have some rough edges as mentioned above, these are minor issues that could easily be corrected.

Tensorflow / Tensorflow.js in Review

For my PhD, I've been using both Tensorflow.js (Tensorflow for Javascript) and more recently Tensorflow for Python (including the bundled Keras) extensively for implementing multiple different models. Given the experiences I've had so far, I thought it was high time I put my thoughts to paper so to speak and write a blog post reviewing the 2 frameworks.

Tensorflow logo

Tensorflow for Python

Let's start with Tensorflow for Python. I haven't been using it as long as Tensorflow.js, but as far as I can tell they've done a great job of ensuring it comes with batteries included. It has layers that come in an enormous number of different flavours for doing everything you can possibly imagine - including building Transformers (though I ended up implementing the time signal encoding in my own custom layer).

Building custom layers is not particularly difficult either - though you do have to hunt around a bit for the correct documentation, and I haven't yet worked out the all the bugs with loading model checkpoints that use custom layers back in again.

Handling data as a generic "tensor" that contains an n-dimension slab of data is - once you get used to it - a great way of working. It's not something I would recommend to the beginner however - rather I would recommend checking out Brain.js. It's easier to setup, and also more transparent / easier to understand what's going on.

Data preprocessing however is where things start to get complicated. Despite a good set of API reference docs to refer to, it's not clear how one is supposed to implement a performant data preprocessing pipeline. There are multiple methods for doing this (, tf.utils.Sequence, and others), and I have as of yet been unable to find a definitive guide on the subject.

Other small inconsistencies are also present, such as both the Keras website and the Tensorflow API docs both documenting the Keras API, which in and of itself appears to be an abstraction of the Tensorflow API.... it gets confusing. Some love for the docs more generally is also needed, as I found some the wording in places ambiguous as to what it meant - so I ended up guessing and having to work it out by experimentation.

By far the biggest issue I encountered though (aside from the data preprocessing pipeline, which is really confusing and frustrating) is that a highly specific version of CUDA is required for each version of Tensorflow. Thankfully, there's a table of CUDA / CuDNN versions to help you out, but it's still pretty annoying that you have to have a specific version. Blender manages to be CUDA enabled while supporting enough different versions of CUDA that I haven't had an issue on stock Ubuntu with the propriety Nvidia drivers and the system CUDA version, so whhy can't Tensorflow do it too?


This brings me on to Tensorflow.js, the Javascript bindings for libtensorflow (the underlying C++ library). This also has the specific version of CUDA issue, but in addition the version requirement documented in the README is often wrong, leaving you to make random wild guesses as to which version is required!

Despite this flaw, Tensorflow.js fixes a number of inconsistencies in Tensorflow for Python - I suspect that it was written after Tensorflow for Python was first implemented. The developers have effectively learnt valuable lessons from the Python version of Tensorflow, which has resulted in a coherent and cohesive API that makes a much more sense than the API in Python. A great example of this is tf.Dataset: The data preprocessing pipeline in Tensorflow.js is well designed and easy to use. The Python version could learn a lot from this.

While Tensorflow.js doesn't have quite the same set of features (a number of prebuilt layers that exist in Python don't yet existing in Tensorflow.js), it still provides a reasonable set of features that satisfy most use-cases. I have noticed a few annoying inconsistencies in the loss functions though and how they behave - for example I implemented an autoencoder in Tensorflow.js, but it only returned black and white pixels - whereas Tensorflow for Python returned greyscale as intended.

Aside from improving CUDA support and adding more prebuilt layers, the other thing that Tensorflow.js struggles with is documentation. It has comparatively few guides with respect to Tensorflow for Python, and it also has an ambiguity problem in the API docs. This could be mostly resolved by being slightly more generous with explanations as to what things are and do. Adding some examples to the docs in question would also help - as would also fixing the bug where it does not highlight the item you're currently viewing in the navigation page (DevDocs support would be awesome too).


Tensorflow for Python and Tensorflow.js are feature-filled and performant frameworks for machine learning and processing large datasets with GPU acceleration. Many tutorials are provided to help newcomers to the frameworks, but once you've followed a tutorial or 2 you're left very much to be on your own. A number of caveats and difficulties such as CUDA versions and confusing APIs / docs make mastering the framework difficult.

Proteus VIII Laptop from PC Specialist in Review

Recently I bought a new laptop from PC Specialist. Unfortunately I'm lost the original quote / specs that were sent to me, but it was a Proteus VIII. It has the following specs:

  • CPU: Intel i7-10875H
  • RAM: 32 GiB DDR4 2666MHz
  • Disk: 1 TiB SSD (M.2; nvme)
  • GPU: Nvidia GeForce RTX 2060

In this post, I want to give a review now that I've had the device for a short while. I'm still experiencing some teething issues (more on those later), but I've experienced enough of the device to form an opinion on it. This post will also serve as a sort-of review of the installation process of Ubuntu too.

It arrived in good time - thankfully I didn't have any issues with their choice of delivery service (DPD in my area have some problems). I did have to wait a week or 2 for them to build the system, but I wasn't in any rush so this was fine for me. The packaging it arrived it was ok. It came in a rather large cardboard box, inside which there was some plastic padding (sad face), inside which there was another smaller cardboard box. Work to be done in the eco-friendly department, but on the whole good here.

I ordered without an operating system, as my preferred operating system is Ubuntu (the latest version is currently 20.10 Groovy Gorilla). The first order of business was the OS installation here. This went went fine - but only after I could actually get the machine to boot! It turns out that despite it appearing to have support for booting from USB flash drives as advertised in the boot menu, this feature doesn't actually work. I tried the following:

  • The official Ubuntu ISO flashed to a USB 3 flash drive
  • A GRUB installation on a USB 3 flash drive
  • A GRUB installation on a USB 2 flash drive
  • Ubuntu 20.10 burned to a DVD in an external DVD drive (ordered with the laptop)

....and only the last one worked. I've worked with a diverse range of different devices, but never have I encountered one that completely refused to boot at all from a USB drive. Clearly some serious work is required on the BIOS. The number of different settings in the BIOS were also somewhat limited compared to other systems I've poked around on, but I can't give any specific examples here of things that were missing (other than a setting to toggle the virtualisation extensions, which was on by default) - so I guess it doesn't matter all that much. The biggest problem is the lack of USB flash drive boot support - that was really frustrating.

When installing Ubuntu this time around, I decided to try enabling LVM (Logical Volume Management, it's very cool I've discovered) and a LUKS encrypted hard drive. Although I've encountered these technologies before, this will be my first time using them regularly myself. Thankfully, the Ubuntu installer did a great job of setting this up automatically (except the swap partition, which was too small to hibernate, but I'll talk about that in a moment).

Once installed, I got to doing the initial setup. I'm particularly picky here - I use the Unity 7.5 Desktop (yes, I know Ubuntu now uses the GNOME shell, and no I haven't yet been able to get along with it). I'll skip over the details of the setup here, as it's not really relevant to the review. I will mention though that I'm also using X11, not Wayland at the moment - and that I have the propriety Nvidia driver installed (version 450 at the time of typing).

Although I've had a discrete graphics card before (most recently an AMD Radeon R7 M445, and an Nvidia 525M), this is the first time I've had one that's significantly more powerful than the integrated graphics that's built into the CPU. My experience with this so far is mostly positive (it's rather good at rendering in Blender, but I have yet to stress it significantly), and in some graphical tests it gives significantly higher frame rates than the integrated graphics. If you use the propriety graphics drivers, I recommend going into the Nvidia X server settings (accessed through the launcher) → PRIME Profiles, changing it to "On-Demand", and then rebooting. This will prolong your battery life and reduce the noise from the fans by using the integrated graphics by default, but allow you to run select applications on the GPU (see my recent post on how to do this).

It's not without its teething issues though. I think I'm just unlucky, but I have yet to setup a system with an Nvidia graphics card where I haven't had some kind of problem. In this case, it's screen flickering. To alleviate this somewhat, I found and followed the instructions in this Ask Ubuntu Answer. I also found I had to enable the Force synchronization between X and GLX workaround (and maybe another one as well, I can't remember). Even with these enabled, sometimes I still get flickering after it resumes from suspension / stand by.

Speaking of stand by mode, I've found that this laptop does not like hibernation at all. I'm unsure as to whether this is just because I'm using LVM + LUKS, or whether it's an issue with the device more generally, but if I try sudo pm-hibernate from the terminal, the screen flashes a bit, the mouse cursor disappears, and then the fan spins up - with the screen still on and all my windows apparently still open.

I haven't experimented with the quirks / workarounds provided yet, but I guess ties into the early issues with the BIOS, in that there are some clear issues with the BIOS that need to be resolved.

This hibernation issue also ties into the upower subsystem, in that even if you tell it (in both the Unity and GNOME desktop shells) to "do nothing" on low battery, it will forcefully turn the device off - even if you're in the middle of typing a sentence! I think this is because upower doesn't seem to have an option for suspend or "do nothing" in /etc/Upower/UPower.conf or something? I'm still investigating this issue (if you have any suggestions, please do get in touch!).

Despite these problems, the build quality seems good. It's certainly nice having a metal frame, as it feels a lot more solid than my previous laptop. The keyboard feels great too - the feedback from pressing the keys enhances the feeling of a solid frame. The keyboard is backlit too, which makes more a more pleasant experience in dimly lit rooms (though proper lighting is a must in any workspace).

The layout of the keyboard feels a little odd to me. It's a UK keyboard yes (I use a UK keyboard myself), but it doesn't have dedicated Home / End / Page Up / Page Down keys - these are built into the number pad at the right hand side of the keyboard. It's taken some getting used to toggling the number lock every time I want to use these keys, which increases cognitive load.

It does have a dedicated SysRq key though (which my last laptop didn't have), so now I can articles like this one and use the SysRq feature to talk to the Linux Kernel directly in case of a lock-up or crash (I have had the screen freeze on me once or twice - I later discovered this was because it had attempted to hibernate and failed, and I also ran into this problem, which I have yet to find a resolution to), or in case I accidentally set off a program that eats all of the available RAM.

The backlight of the keyboard goes from red at the left-hand side to green in the middle, and blue at the right-hand side. According to the PC Specialist forums, there's a driver that you can install to control this, but the installation seems messy - and would probably need recompiling every time you install a new kernel since DKMS (Dynamic Kernel Module System, I think) isn't used. I'm ok with the default for now, so I haven't bothered with this.

The touchpad does feel ok. It supports precision scrolling, has a nice feel to it, and isn't too small, so I can't complain about it.

The laptop doesn't have an inbuilt optical drive, which is another first for me. I don't use optical disks often, but it was nice having a built-in drive for this in previous laptops. An external one just feels clunky - but I guess I can't complain too much because of the extra components and power that are built-in to the system.

The airflow of the system - as far as I can tell so far, is very good. Air comes in through the bottom, and is then pushed out again through the back and the back of the sides by 2 different fans. These fans are, however, rather noisy at times - and have taken some getting used to as my previous Dell laptop's fans were near silent until I started to stress the system. The noise they make is also slightly higher pitched too, which makes it more noticeable - and sound like a jet engine (though I admit I've never heard a real one in person, and I'm also somewhat hypersensitive to sound) when at full blast. Curiously, there's a dedicated key on the keyboard that - as far as I can tell - toggles between the normal on-demand fan mode and locking the fans at full blast. Great to quickly cool down the system if the fans haven't kicked in yet, but not so great for your ears!

I haven't tested the speakers much, but from what I can tell they are appropriately placed in front of the keyboard just before the hinge for the screen - which is a much better placement than on the underside at the front in my last laptop! Definitely a positive improvement there.

I wasn't sure based on the details on the PC specialist website, but the thickness of the base is 17.5mm at the thickest point, and 6mm for the screen - making ~23.5mm in total (although my measurements may not be completely accurate).

To summarise, the hardware I received was great - overlooking a few pain points such as the BIOS and poor keyboard layout decisions. Some work is still needed on environmental issues and sustainability, but packaging was on the whole ok. Watch out for the delivery service, as my laptop was delivered by DPD who don't have a great track record in my area.

Overall, the hardware build quality is excellent. I'm not sure if I can recommend them yet, but if you want a new PC or laptop they are certainly not a bad place to look.

Found this helpful? Got a suggestion? Want to say hi? Comment below!

Lua in Review 2

The Lua Logo Back in 2015, I reviewed the programming language Lua. A few months ago I rediscovered the maze generation implementation I ported as part of that post, and since then I've been writing quite a bit of Lua - so I thought I'd return to the thoughts in that original post and write another language review now that I've had some more experience with the language.

For those not in the know, Lua is a lightweight scripting language. You can find out more here:

In the last post, I mentioned that Lua is very lightweight. I still feel this is true today - and it has significant advantages in that the language is relatively simple to understand and get started in - and feels very predictable in how it functions.

It is often said that Lua is designed to be embedded in other programs (such as to provide a modding interface to a game, for example) - and this certainly seems to hold true. Lua definitely seems to be well-suited for this kind of use-case.

The lightweightness comes at a cost though. The first of these is the standard library. Compared to other languages such as C♯ and even Javascript, the standard library sucks. At least half of the time you find yourself reimplementing some algorithm that should have been packaged with the language itself:

  • Testing if a string starts with a given substring
  • Rounding a number to the nearest integer
  • Making a shallow copy of a table

Do you want to do any of these? Too bad, you'll have to implement them yourself in Lua. While these really aren't a big deal, my point here is that with functions like these it can be all too easy to make a mistake when implementing them, and then your code has a bug in it. If you find and fix an obscure edge case for example, that fix will only apply to your code and not the hundreds of other ad-hoc implementations other developers have had to cook up to get things done, leading to duplicated and wasted effort.

A related issue I'm increasingly finding is that of the module system and the lack of reusable packages. In Lua, if you want to import code from another file as a self-contained module, you use the require function, like this:

local foo = require("foo")

The above will import code from a file named foo.lua. However, this module import here is done relative to the entrypoint of your program, and not the file that's requesting the import, leading to a number of issues:

  • If you want to move a self-contained subsection of a codebase around, suddenly you have to rewrite all the imports of not only the rest of the codebase (as normal), but also of all the files in the subdirectory you've just moved
  • You can't have a self-contained 'package' of code that, say, you have in a git submodule - because the code in the submodule can't predict the path to the original entrypoint of your program relative to itself

While LuaRocks attempts to alleviate this issue to some extent (and I admit I haven't yet investigated it in any great detail), as far as I can tell it installs packages globally, which doesn't help if you're writing some Lua that is going to be embedded inside another program, as the global package may or may not be available. Even if it is available, it's debatable as to whether you'd be allowed to import it anyway, since many embedded environments have restrictions in place here for security purposes.

Despite these problems, I've found Lua to be quite a nice language to use (if a little on the verbose side, due to syntactical structure and the lack of a switch statement). Although it's not great at getting out of your way and letting you get on with your day (Javascript is better at this I find), it does have some particularly nice features - such as returning multiple values from a single function (which mostly makes up for the lack of exceptions), and some cute table definition syntax.

It's not the kind of language you want to use for your next big project, but it's certainly worth experimenting with to broaden your horizons and learn a new language that forces you to program in a significantly different style than you would perhaps use normally.

Rust Review Redux

It was aaaages ago that I first reviewed Rust. For those not in the know, Rust is a next-generation compiled language (similar to Go, but this is where they diverge) developed by Mozilla - out of a need to have a safer alternative to C++ for writing key components of Firefox in.

Since then, I've obtained both a degree and a masters in computer science. I've also learnt a number of programming languages since then. I have been searching for a better alternative to C++ that's easier to use and doesn't fight you at every step - and I decided to give Rust another go.

After a few false starts, I managed to get going with starting to build a little web app (which will probably take a while until I can really show it off here). The tooling for the compiler is pretty good once you actually get it installed - although the installer itself is truly shocking (ly bad):

  • rustup - Manages multiple versions of Rust installed (I haven't used it much yet; apparently it's like nvm the Node Version Manager, but I don't use that either)
  • cargo - Orchestrates the building of your project and the installation of dependencies, which are known as crates.
  • rustc - The compiler itself. You probably won't interact with it directly much - instead going through cargo most of the time.

Together (and with the right Atom packages installed), they make for a relatively pleasant development experience. I mention the installer in particular though, because it's awful. I noted a number of issues with it:

  • The official website forces you to download an installation script that pipes to sh
  • It will only install on a per-user basis (goodbye disk space, hello extra system config complexity)
  • It doesn't even tell you how much disk space it's going to use (which wouldn't be an issue if they just setup an apt repository....)

These issues aside, other aspects of the experience were also worthy of note. First, the error messages the Rust compiler generates are actually useful. Much better than they were the last time I really dove into Rust, they provide you with much moree detail as to what's gone wrong, and there's even a special rustc --explain ERROR_CODE command you can execute to get more detail about what went wrong, why, and how to fix it.

This as a feature is certainly helpful for me as a beginner Rust programmer, but I think it's also a pretty essential feature given Rust's weirdness as a language.

I'm seriously not kidding - Rust is a nutty language. For one, classes exist.... sort of - but only as structs. Which are passed by reference (again, sort of) by default and may not contain methods - that's the job of an impl, which is short for an implementation. Implementations are a strange mix between C♯'s interfaces and multiple inheritance (in C++ I think it is?). And there are traits, which I haven't really looked into fully yet, but are a mix between interfaces and abstract classes..... you get the picture.

Point is, all this funky strangeness that goes on in Rust makes it a very challenging language to learn. A challenge that I feel is worth persevering with, but a challenge nonetheless. Rust does have a number of very powerful features that make it worth the effort, in my opinion.

For example, it catches entire classes of critically nasty bugs that plague other low-level systems languages such as C and C++ like use-after-free and the really awful concurrency race conditions at compile time - which is incredible, if you ask me. Such bugs have been a serious bother to many high-profile software projects that exist today and have caused a number of security issues. Rust is a testament to what can be achieved when you start from scratch and fix these issues by designing them out of the language.

For the curious, it does this by a complex system of variable lifetime, ownership, moving, and borrowing. I don't yet understand all the details, but the system enables the Rust compiler to be able to trace the lifetime of a variable at compile time, so you get the benefit of having a garbage collector without any of the overhead, since it's all been done at compile-time and built into your program that way.

This deep understanding of how data is passed around also yields performance and efficiency benefits too. C and C++ do not have such an understanding, so there are a number of performance optimisations the Rust compiler can make that would be considered far too dangerous for gcc to do. The net result of this is that sometimes code written in Rust will actually be faster than C and C++. This is a significant accomplishment, as the speed of C and C++ has been held as the gold standard for a long time (see exhibits A and B just for starters).

These are just some of the reasons that I'm persisting with learning Rust. So far, it seems like a "slow and steady wins the race" kinda deal - in that I'm taking it one concept at a time. There's a huge amount to take in, so I can't recommend that you try and do it all at once - time to consolidate what I've learnt so far is quite important I've found.

Rust is absolutely one of the hardest languages I've tried to learn, as it reinvents a lot of concepts which have been a staple of programming languages for a long time. However, it also comes with key benefits ease-of-use (once learnt, compared to C and C++), performance, and program execution safety at runtime (it was originally invented by Mozilla specifically to make Firefox a safer and faster browser, IIRC). To this end, I'm going to try my best to keep learning the language - and report back here at some point with cool stuff I've created (at the moment it's still in a state of flux and I'm refactoring heavily at each successive stage) :D

Edit: I've just remembered. I do currently have 2 big issues with rust: compilation time and disk space usage. When you install a dependency, it not only builds it from source,e but also recursively builds all of it's dependencies from source too. Not only does this take forever, but it also eats huge volumes of disk space for breakfast!

Found this interesting? Got some helpful advice or a question about Rust? Comment below!

Why the TICK stack probably isn't for me

Recently, I've been experimenting with upgrading my monitoring system. The TICK stack consists of a number of different elements:

Together, these 4 programs provide everything you need to monitor your infrastructure, generate graphs, and send alerts via many different channels when things go wrong. This works reasonably well - and to give the developers credit, the level of integration present is pretty awesome. Telegraf seamlessly inserts metrics into InfluxDB, and Chronograf is designed to integrate with the metrics generated by Telegraf.

I haven't tried Kapacitor much yet, but it has an impressive list of integrations. For reference, I've been testing the TICK stack on an old Raspberry Pi 2 that I had lying around. I also tried Grafana too, which I'll talk about later.

The problems start when we talk about the system I've been using up until now (and am continuing to use). I've got a Collectd setup going - with Collectd Graph Panel (CGP) as a web interface, which is backed by RRD databases.

CGP, while it has it's flaws, is pretty cool. Unlike Chronograf, it doesn't require manual configuration when you enable new metric types - it generates graphs automatically. For a small personal home network, I don't really want to be spending hours manually specifying what all the graphs should look like for all the metrics I'm collecting. It's seriously helpful to have it done automatically.

Grafana also stumbles here. Before I installed the CK part of the TICK stack, I tried Grafana. After some initial installation issues (the Raspberry Pi 2's CPU only supports up to ARMv6, and Grafana uses ARMv7l instructions, causing some awkward and unfortunate issues that were somewhat difficult to track down). While it has an incredible array of different graphs and visualisations you can configure, like Chronograf it doesn't generate any of these graphs for you automatically.

Both solutions do have an import / export system for dashboards, which allows you to share prebuilt dashboards - but this isn't the same as automatic graph generation.

The other issue with the TICK stack is how heavy it is. Spoiler: it's very heavy indeed - especially InfluxDB. It managed to max out my poor Raspberry Pi 2's CPU - and ate all my RAM too! It look quite a bit of tuning to configure it such that it didn't eat all of my RAM for breakfast and knock my SSH session offline.

I'm sure that in a business setting you'd have heaps of resources just waiting to be dedicated to monitoring everything from your mission-critical servers to your cat's lunch - but in a home setting it takes up more resources passively when it isn't even doing anything than everything else I'm monitoring..... combined!

It's for these reasons that I'm probably not going to end up using the TICK (or TIG, for that matter) stack. For the reasons I've explained above, while it's great - it's just not for me. What I'm going to use instead though, I'm not sure. Development on CGP ceased in 2017 (or probably before that) - and I've got a growing list of features I'd like to add to it - including (but not limited to) fixing the SMART metrics display, reconfiguring the length of time metrics are stored for, and fixing a super annoying bug that makes the graphs go nuts when you scroll on them on a touchpad with precise scrolling enabled.

Got a suggestion for another different system I could try? Comment below!

Quick File Management with Gossa

Recently a family member needed to access some documents at a remote location that didn't support USB flash drives. Awkward to be sure, but I did some searching around and found a nice little solution that I thought I'd blog about here.

At first, I thought about setting up Filestash - but I discovered that only installation through Docker is officially supported (if it's written in Go, then shouldn't it end up as a single binary? What's Docker needed for?).

Docker might be great, but for a quick solution to an awkward issue I didn't really want to go to the trouble for installing Docker and figuring out all the awkward plumbing problems for the first time. It definitely appeared to me that it's better suited to a setup where you're already using Docker.

Anyway, I then discovered Gossa. It's also written in Go, and is basically a web interface that lets you upload, download, and rename files (click on a file or directory's icon to rename).

A screenshot of Gossa listing the contents of my CrossCode music folder. CrossCode is awesome, and you should totally go and play it - after finishing reading this post of course :P

Is it basic? Yep.

Do the icons look like something from 1995? Sure.

(Is that Times New Roman I spy? I hope not)

Does it do the job? Absolutely.

For what it is, it's solved my problem fabulously - and it's so easy to setup! First, I downloaded the binary from the latest release for my CPU architecture, and put it somewhere on disk:

curl -o gossa -L

chmod +x gossa
sudo chown root: gossa
sudo mv gossa /usr/local/bin/gossa;

Then, I created a systemd service file to launch Gossa with the right options:

Description=Gossa File Manager (syncthing) rsyslog.service

ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/gossa -h [::1] -p 5700 -prefix /gossa/ /path/to/directory/to/serve



_(Top tip! Use systemctl cat service_name to quickly see the service file definition for any given service)_

Here I start Gossa listening on the IPv6 local loopback address on port 5700, set the prefix to /gossa/ (I'm going to be reverse-proxying it later on using a subdirectory of a pre-existing subdomain), and send the standard output & error to syslog. Speaking of which, we should tell syslog what to do with the logs we send it. I put this in /etc/rsyslog.d/gossa.conf:

if $programname == 'gossa' then /var/log/gossa/gossa.log
if $programname == 'gossa' then stop

After that, I configured log rotate by putting this into /etc/logrotate.d/gossa:

/var/log/gossa/*.log {
    rotate 14
    create 0640 root adm
        invoke-rc.d rsyslog rotate >/dev/null

Very similar to the configuration I used for RhinoReminds, which I blogged about here.

Lastly, I configured Nginx on the machine I'm running this on to reverse-proxy to Gossa:

server {

    # ....

    location /gossa {
        proxy_pass http://[::1]:5700;

    # ....


I've configured authentication elsewhere in my Nginx server block to protect my installation against unauthorised access (and oyu probably should too). All that's left to do is start Gossa and reload Nginx:

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl start gossa
# Check that Gossa is running
sudo systemctl status gossa

# Test the Nginx configuration file changes before reloading it
sudo nginx -t
sudo systemctl reload

Note that reloading Nginx is more efficient that restarting it, since it doesn't kill the process - only reload the configuration from disk. It doesn't matter here, but in a production environment that receives a high volume of traffic you it's a great way make configuration changes while avoid dropping client connections.

In your web browser, you should see something like the image at the top of this post.

Found this interesting? Got another quick solution to an otherwise awkward issue? Comment below!

Art by Mythdael