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PhD Aside 2: Jupyter Lab / Notebook First Impressions

Hello there! I'm back with another PhD Aside blog post. In the last one, I devised an extremely complicated and ultimately pointless mechanism by which multiple Node.js processes can read from the same file handle at the same time. This post hopefully won't be quite as useless, as it's a cross with the other reviews / first impressions posts I've made previously.

I've had Jupyter on my radar for ages, but it's only very recently that I've actually given it a try. Despite being almost impossible to spell (though it does appear to be getting easier with time), both it's easy to install and extremely useful when plotting visualisations, so I wanted to talk about it here.

I tried Jupyter Lab, which is apparently more complicated than Jupyter Notebook. Personally though I'm not sure I see much of a difference, aside from a file manager sidebar in Jupyter Lab that is rather useful.

A Jupyter Lab session of mine, in which I was visualising embeddings from a pretrained CLIP model.

(Above: A Jupyter Lab session of mine, in which I was visualising embeddings from a pretrained CLIP model.)

Jupyter Lab is installed via pip (pip3 for apt-based systems): https://jupyter.org/install. Once installed, you can start a server with jupyter-lab in a terminal (or command line), and then it will automatically open a new tab in your browser that points to the server instance (http://localhost:8888/ by default).

Then, you can open 1 or more Jupyter Notebooks, which seem to be regular files (e.g. Javascript, Python, and more) but are split into 'cells', which can be run independently of one another. While these cells are usually run in order, there's nothing to say that you can't run them out of order, or indeed the same cell over and over again as you prototype a graph.

The output of each cell is displayed directly below it. Be that a console.log()/print() call or a graph visualisation (see the screenshot above), it seems to work just fine. It also saves the output of a cell to disk alongside the code in the Jupyter Notebook, can be a double-edged sword: On the one hand, it's very useful to have the plot and other output be displayed to remind you what you were working on, but on the other hand if the output somehow contains sensitive data, then you need to remember to clear it before saving & committing to git each time, which is a hassle. Similarly, every time the output changes the notebook file on disk also changes, which can result in unnecessary extra changes committed to git if you're not careful.

In the same vein, I have yet to find a way to define a variable in a notebook file whose value is not saved along with the notebook file, which I'd rather like since the e.g. tweets I work with for the social media side of my PhD are considered sensitive information, and so I don't want to commit them to a git repository which will no doubt end up open-source.

You can also import functions and classes from other files. Personally, I see Jupyter notebooks to be most useful when used in conjunction with an existing codebase: while you can put absolutely everything in your Jupyter notebook, I wouldn't recommend it as you'll end up with spaghetti code that's hard to understand or maintain - just like you would in a regular codebase in any other language.

Likewise, I wouldn't recommend implementing an AI model in a Jupyter notebook directly. While you can, it makes it complicated to train it on a headless server - which you'll likely want to do if you want to train a model at any scale.

The other minor annoyance is that by using Jupyter you end up forfeiting thee code intelligence of e.g. Atom or Visual Studio Code, which is a shame since a good editor can e.g. check syntax on the fly, inform you of unused variables, provide autocomplete, etc.

These issues aside, Jupyter is a great fit for plotting visualisations due to the very short improve → rerun → inspect/evaluate output loop. It's also a good fit for writing tutorials I suspect, as it apparently has support for markdown cells too. At some point, I may try writing a tutorial in Jupyter notebook, rendering it to regular markdown, and posting it here.

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