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Prolog: First Impressions (or a basic tutorial on the first lab session)

The new learning prolog banner!

Yesterday I had my first artificial intelligence lab session on Prolog. It didn't start off very well. The instructions we were given didn't seem to have been tested and were largely useless. Thankfully one of the demonstrators came over to help and showed me the basics.

This blog post is part review, part first impressions, and part tutorial. It's purpose is to consolidate the things that I have learnt. Hopefully it will be useful to someone else out there :) Also note, if you haven't figured it out by now, I am a complete beginner with Prolog. There will be mistakes! If you spot one, please comment below so that I can fix it :)

My first impression of Prolog is that it is hard. It is very hard to learn. This isn't helped by the fact that the tools available to the new Prolog programmer are very out of date and feel exceptionally clunky. Perhaps a redesign is in order?

Anyway, I discovered at first that Prolog is very much like a detective. You give it facts and relationships, and then question it on the information you've given it (much like comprehension) using things called queries. Here's an example of a fact:


In the above, we are telling prolog that something called a cat exists. In it's world now, a cat is the only thing in existence. We can then ask it whether a cat exists in the world in the query window by running the prolog file. If you are using the default editor that comes with Prolog, simply press CTRL+C and then CTRL+B. If you aren't, type prolog to launch a query window based on filename.

?- cat.

Prolog is telling us that a cat exists, but we knew that already. Let's try asking it whether a dog exists:

?- dog.
ERROR: toplevel: Undefined procedure: dog/0 (DWIM could not correct goal)

Oh dear! We get a nasty (over)complicated error! Thankfully, this error (in this case) is a really simple one. Prolog is basically telling us that it doesn't know what a dog is, because a dog doesn't exist in Prolog's world at the moment.

Getting Prolog to tell us whether something exists in it's world is nice, but it isn't terribly useful. Let's try something a little bit more complicated.


The above tells prolog that a cat is an animal. For reference, the bit before the opening bracket is called a predicate I think. After executing the above, Prolog's world jsut got a bit more complicated. It now knows that there is something called a cat, and that a cat is an animal. We can then ask Prolog if a cat is an animal like so:

?- animal(cat).

Prolog tells us that yes, a cat is an animal. This is also nice, but still not amazingly clever. Let's write some more Prolog.




likes(cat, milk).
likes(dog, bone).

The above looks much more complicated, but it's not as bad you might first think. In the above, we tell Prolog that a cat, a dog, and a cow are animals. We also tell it that only a cat and dog are pets. In addition, we say that both milk and a bone are forms of food, and that a cat likes milk, and a dog likes a bone. We can then ask Prolog a bunch of questions on the above:

?- animal(cow).
?- pet(cow).
?- likes(cat, milk).
?- likes(cat, bone).

In the above, we ask prolog 4 questions:

  1. Is a cow an animal? Prolog answers that yes, a cow is in fact an animal (we told it so).
  2. Is a cow a pet? Prolog answers that no, a cow isn't a pet. It knows that because we told it that a cow is an animal, but we didn't tell it that a cow is a pet.
  3. Does a cat like milk? Prolog answers that yes, cats do like milk - because we told it so.
  4. Does a cat like a bone? Prolog answers that no, cats don't like bones, as we told it that cats like milk instead.

Prolog is starting to show how powerful it is, but I have a feeling that I haven't even scratched the surfaced yet. Next week, assuming I understand the next lab, I'll make another post about what I've learnt.

Ubuntu: Second Impressions

Ubuntu's Default Background I've had my laptop dual booted with Ubuntu for a while now, and I've been using Ubuntu in a Virtual Machine and as a live CD, but I've only just gotten around to rearrenging my partitions and reimaging my Ubuntu partition with Ubuntu 15.04. Previously, I had a bunch of issues with ubuntu (for example my laptop kept heating up), but I seem to have solved most of them and I thought that I'd post here about the problems I encountered, how I fixed them, and what I think of the latest version of ubuntu.

Firstly, I installed ubuntu from a live CD iso on my flash drive. Annoyingly, I used the 32 bit version by accident, and had to do it again. It would be nice if it told you which version you were about to install. Anyway, I found the installer to be rather temperamental. It kept freezing for ages, and all I could do was wait.

After the installation finished, I was left with a brand new, and very buggy, 64 bit Ubuntu 15.04 installation. As soon as it booted, the first job was to stop my cursor from flickering. Because I have an Nvidia GeForce 550M GPU, Ubuntu didn't recognise it properly (it detected it as a second 'unknown display') and so custom drivers were needed to fix it. I found this post, which guided me through the installation of both bumblebee (to control which of my two GPUs I use), and the official Nvidia drivers for my graphics card.

After banishing the flickering cursor, I found my laptop cooler, though it still wasn't right. Next up was to install thermald, indicator-cpufreq and lm-sensors. This trio of packages automatically controls the frequency of your CPU to both save power and prevent overheating. Normally, linux doesn't pay any attention to the frequency of the CPU of it's host system, leaving to run at it's maximum speed all the time - which causes battery drain and overheating.

Now that my laptop wasn't overheating too much, I could focus on other problems. When in Windows 7, I have something called SRS Premium Sound. It is brilliant at tweaking audio just before it reaches the speakers to improve it's quality. I quickly found when I got this laptop that it was essential - the speakers are facing downwards and the output sounds 'tinny' or 'hollow' without it. Since linux doesn't have SRS, the next best thing was PulseAudio, which provides you with an equaliser to tune your sound output with. Note that PulseAudio does actually work with Ubuntu 14, even though some people have said that it has been discontinued (I don't think it has?).

The other thing that needed changing was my touchpad. I felt like I had to hammer it in order to get it to recognise my touch, whereas in Windows it picked up the lightest of touches. My solution was to add the following to my .profile:

synclient FingerLow=2
synclient FingerHigh=3
synclient AccelFactor=0.145
synclient TouchpadOff=0
synclient MinSpeed=1.25
synclient MaxSpeed=2
synclient CoastingFriction=30

This improved the responsiveness of my touchpad a whole lot to the point where I could actually use it without getting frustrated :)

That covers the main problems I came across. As for what I think, I'm finding Ubuntu to be a great operating system to work with - now that I've worked most of the bugs out. Things like indicator-cpufreq and thermald ought to be automatically installed on systems that support them at install time. You should also be prompted to install bumblebee and the offical nvidia graphics drivers at install time too, as a system with multiple GPUs (i.e. integrated graphics and a graphics card) are pretty unusable without them. Sensible default settings would be nice too - nobody likes hammering their touchpad just to get a response.

The Ubuntu unity desktop developers seem to have remvoved a bunch of configuration options from the GUI in recent releases. Hopefully they wil readd them - it's rather annoying to have to enter the terminal to change something as simple as the login screen background.

On the plus side, Ubuntu seems to load much faster than Windows 7, and is more responsive too. I also feel like I have more screen space to work with as there isn't a task bar taking up space at the bottom of the screen. The customisability is amazing too. I am finding that there are far more things that you can tweak and fiddle with in Ubuntu compared to Windows.

To finish off this post, here's a list of smaller problems I had, and a link to the appropriate post that fixed it for me:

First Impressions: C♯

I will be learning C♯ over the next year or so, and since I am almost a week into learning it, I thought that I would post my first impressions here on this blog.

C♯ is a compiled language developed by Microsoft that looks a little bit javascript, and a little bit like Rust (If you haven't heard of rust yet, I have written up a first impressions post here). Like rust, it has a type system, so you can't set a variable with the type int to a string. This type system is not a confusing, though, since it only has a single type for strings (rust has two - one that you can change and one that you can't) and you can convert between the different types quite easily (e.g. int.Parse() converts a string to an int).

The brackets syntax is almost identical to that of Javascript, except C♯ has classes and namespacees too (I don't really know what those do yet). Indentation also seems to be fairly important, which is perfectly fine by me since it improves the readability of your code.

Looking around on the internet, it seems that C♯ is tied in with Visual Studio quite closely. This might cause problems in the future, because I don't really want ot install visual studio (express) on my computer because of it's file size (the installer alone is > 600MB!). Hopefully I can continue to use the csc C♯ compiler I found in the .NET 4.0 folder on my computer as my code becomes more complex.

All in all C♯ looks like a good introductory language to the world of compiled programming. The syntax is straight forward and easy to understand so far, and it is kind of similar to Javascript, which eases the learning process considerably.

Rust: First Impressions

You may have heard of Mozilla's Rust - a fairly new language developed by Mozilla for their new rendering engine, Servo. Recently, I took a look at Rust, and this post contains my thoughts.

Please note that I am looking at Rust (a compiled language) from the prespective of an interpreted language programmer, since I have not actually learnt any other compiled languages yet.

To start off with, Rust code appears fairly easy to read, and is loosely based on other languages that I already know, such as Javascript. You can quickly get the gist of a piece of Rust code just by reading it through, even without the comments.

The compiler is easy to use for beginners, and also quite helpful when you make mistakes, although some of the error messages are definitely not friendly to a new Rust programmer. I personally got totally confused by the finer points of Rust's type system, and the compiler was most certainly not helpful when it came to sorting the problems out.

The ability to set a variable equal to the output of a complex expression is also nice - allowing you to do this:

fn main() {
    let x = 2u;

    let y = match x {
        0 => "x is zero!",
        1 => "x is one!",
        2 => "x is two!",
        3 => "x is three!",
        4 => "x is four!",
        5 => "x is five!",
        _ => "x is larger than five!"

    println!("{}", y);

Rust has some nice language constructs too - the match statement above is an example is this. It looks so much better than the traditional switch statement, and is more flexable as well.

The problem with Rust, though, is that it doesn't really have very many different tutorials and guides out there for new programmers, especially those coming from an interpreted language background, like me. This will sort itself out though, in time. The language itself is also changing frequently, which makes keeping a tutorial updated a considerable amount of work. This also make the language more difficult to learn, since you can't be sure whether the tutorial you are reading is up to date or not. This problem will also gradually disappear on it's own as the language stabilises though.

To conclude, Rust looks like a promising new language that I will resume learning at some point in the future, perhaps when I have more experience with compiled languages (and type systems!), and when rust has stabilised a little more. At the moment Rust does not feel stable enough and mature enough for me to easily learn it.

Art by Mythdael