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## C++ in Review

I started learning C++ back in September, and I think I've experienced enough of it in order to write a proper review post on it. I've been wanting to do this for a while, as I have quite a bit to say about it.

I think I should start off by saying that C++ is complicated. Very complicated. To the point that you could learn about it for years and still not be half way through everything that you could learn about it. While this offers unparalelled customisablility, it also makes it difficult for new programmmers to pick up the language. Even worse is that whilst something might work, it could easily contain a critical security bug that can be extremely difficult to spot.

It's also difficult (for me anyway) to remember what everything is and what it does. For example, a const int* is not the same as an int* const. I find myself constantly looking things up that I forget over and over again. On top of this, a large number of the core built in functions don't actually do what you'd think they would. For example, getline() doesn't get a line of text, and fail() checks to see if an error occurred whilst opening it. These names can't be corrected in a later version of C++ either - later C++ versions must be able to compile previous versions of the language, including pure C from 30 years ago. Perhaps this is what makes it so difficult to use?

The other thing that makes C++ annoying and difficult to use is how low level it is. You end up having to do almost everything yourself - even things that you'd think would be built into the language already. The standard template library (STL) provides a large number of methods and data strutures to fill in the gaps, but most of these are misnamed too (the vector class is actually similar to a C♯ List), so you end up implementing your own anyway because you can't find the class you want in the STL (only to have someone point it out later).

Thankfully, there is a reason why everyone is still using an old broken language to write important code - it's practically the fastest language out there short of assembly language. No other language comes close to rivalling C++ in speed. Is this the only reason we are keeping it?

## Bitwise Operators in C++

A while ago I was given some directed reading on bitwise operators in C++. I've been so busy with coursework, I haven't had time to take a look! Thankfully, I found some time and thought that it would make a good post here.

Bitwise operators in C++ appear to be very similar to those in Javascript. They operate on things at a binary level - i.e. operating on the individual bits that make up a number. Apparently there are 6 different operators:

• & - Bitwise AND
• | - Bitwise OR
• ^ - Bitwise XOR (eXclusive OR)
• ~ - Bit inversion (monadic)
• << - Shift bits to the left
• >> - Shift bits to the right

I'll explain each of these with examples below.

### Bitwise AND

Bitwise AND takes a bit from each thing (usually a number), and outputs a 1 if they are both 1s, and a 0 otherwise. Here's an example:

87654321
--------
01011010 // 90
11010101 // 213
-- AND --
01010000 // 80

In the above example, the only 1s that actually make it through to the final result are positions 7 and 5, which are worth 64 and 16 respectively. This can be useful for extracting a specific bit from a number, like this:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void main() {
int c = 58, d = 15;

cout << "c " << (c & 32) << endl;
cout << "d " << (d & 32) << endl;
}

In the above, I create 2 variables to hold the 2 numbers that I want to test, and then I perform an AND on each one in turn, writing the result to the console. It should output something like this:

c 32
d 0

This is because 58 is 00111010, and 32 is 00100000, so only the 6th bit has a chance of making ti through to the final result.

### Bitwise OR

Bitwise OR outputs a 1, so long as any of the inputs are true. Here's an example:

87654321
--------
10110101
00011101
-- OR --
10111101

### Bitwise XOR

Bitwise XOR stands for exclusive OR, and outputs a 1 so long as either of the inputs are 1, but not both. For example, 1 ^ 0 = 1, but 1 ^ 1 = 0.

87654321
--------
10101101
11001110
-- XOR --
01100011

### Bit inversion

Bitwise inversion is a monadic operator (i.e. it only takes one operand), and flips every bit of the input. For example 11011101 (221) would become 00100010 (34), although this greatly depends of the type and length of the number you are using.

### Bit shifting

Bitshifting is the process of shifting a bit of bits to the left or right a given number of places. For example, if you shift 1010 (10) over to the left 1 place you get 10100 (20), and if you shift 0111 (7) over to the right by one place you get 0011 (3). If you play around with this, you notice that this has the effect of doubling and halving the number:

cout << "f ";
int f = 5;
for(int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
{
f = f << 1;
cout << f << " ";
}
cout << endl;
cout << "g ";
int g = 341;
for(int i = 0; i < 5; i++)
{
g = g >> 1;
cout << g << " ";
}
cout << g << endl;

It doesn't deal with the decimal place, though - for that you need something like a float or a double. Here's some example output from the above:

f 10 20 40 80 160
g 170 85 42 21 10 10

At first glance, the bit shifting operators in c++ look the same as the ones used to stream things to and from an input / output stream - I'll have to be careful when using these to make sure that I don't accidentally stream something when I meant to bitshift it.

Bitshifting can be useful when working with coloured pixels. You can set a colour like this:

unsigned int newCol = ((unsigned int) 248)<<16) +
((unsigned int) 0)<<8) +
((unsigned int) 78);

I think that just about covers bitwise operators in C++. If you're interested, you can find the source code that I've written whilst writing this post here (Raw).

## Static Variable Memory Allocation

Recently we were asked in an Advanced Programming lecture to write a program that proves that static variables in C++ are located in a different area of memory to normal variables. This post is about the program I came up with.

But first I should probably explain a little bit about memory allocation in C++. I'm by no means an expert (I'm just learning!), but I'll do my best.

There are two main areas of memory in C++ - the stack and the heap. The stack is an ordered collection of data that contains all the local variables that you define. It grows downward from a given address in memory. The stack is split up into frames, too, with each frame being a specific context of execution. You can find more information about this in the Intel Software Developer's Manual, Section 6.2.

The second area of memory is the heap. The heap is a large portion of memory that can be used for storing large lumps of unordered data. I haven't taken a look at this yet, so I don't know much more about it.

Apparently variables that are declared to be static are not located in the stack (where they are located I'm not entirely sure), and we were asked to prove it. Here's what I came up with:

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

using namespace std;

void staticTest()
{
static int staticD = 0;
cout << "staticD: " << &staticD << endl;
}

int main()
{
int a = 50;
int b = 200;
int c = 23495;

cout << "a: " << &a << endl;
cout << "b: " << &b << endl;
cout << "c: " << &c << endl;

staticTest();

int e = 23487;
cout << "e: " << &e << endl;

//cin.get();

return 0;
}


The above simply creates 3 normal variables, outputs their addresses, calls the staticTest() function to create a static variable and output it's memory address, and then creates a 4th normal variable and outputs its address too. The above program should output something like this:

a: 0091F8C4 b: 0091F8B8 c: 0091F8AC staticD: 00080320 e: 0091F8A0

In the above output, the normal variables a, b, c, and e are all located next to each other in memory between the adresses 0091F8C4 and 0091F8A0 (note how the memory address is decreasing - the stack grows downward, like a stalactite). The static variable staticD, however, is located in an entirely different area of memory over at 00080320. Since it's located in an entirely different area of memory, it's safe to assume, I think, that static variables are not stored in the stack, but somewhere else (I'm not sure where - the heap maybe?).

## Dividing by zero doesn't always throw an exception

Yesterday I had my first Advenced Programming lab session. Part of the instructions get you to investigate how small a number has to be in order to throw a division by zero exception. I discovered, however, that if you use a double, it does not, in fact, throw any such error. I did some investigation, and thought I might share what I learnt here.

According to Google, C++ only throws a division by zero error if it is doing integer math. It doesn't seem to care if it is doing floating point math. This is because floating point numbers can hold the value Infinity, and integers can't. This means that none of the following statements will throw an error:

double x = 10.0 / 0.0;
float y = 371 / 0.0;
int z = 89.0 / 0.0;

The last line of the above looks like it should throw an error, but it doesn't. The reason for this is that it calculates 89.0 / 0.0 using floating point maths to be Inf, and then converts that into an integer. Since Inf doesn't convert directly, it picks the next best thing I'd assume. The following, however, will all throw an error:

int x = 10 / 0;
float y = 1000 / 0;
double z = 4560 / 0;
Art by Mythdael