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## Pepperminty Wiki CLI

I've got a plan. Since I'm taking the Mobile Development module next semester, I'd like to create an Android app for Pepperminty Wiki that will let me edit one or more instances of Pepperminty Wiki while I'm, say, on a bus.

To this end, I'll need to make sure that Pepperminty Wiki itself is all ready to go - which primarily entail making sure that its REST API is suitably machine-friendly, so that I can pull down all the information I need in the app I build.

Testing this, however, is a bit of a challenge - since I haven't actually started the module yet. My solution, as you might have guessed by the title of this blog post, is to build a command-line interface (CLI) instead. I've been writing a few bash scripts recently, to I tried my hand at creating something that's slightly more polished. Here's a list of the features supported at the time of posting:

• Listing all pages
• Viewing a specific page
• Listing all revisions of a page
• Viewing a specific revision of a page

Support for searching is on the cards, but it's currently waiting on support for grabbing search results as json / plain text from Pepperminty Wiki itself.

I'll be updating it with other things too as I think of them, but if you'd like to give it a try now, then here's the source:

It should update dynamically as I update the script. Simply save it to a file called peppermint - and then you can run ./peppermint to get an overview of the commands it supports. To get detailed help on a specific command, simply run ./peppermint {command_name} to get additional help about that specific command - and additional help for that command will be displayed if it supports any further arguments (it will be executed directly if not).

Sound interesting? Any particular aspect of this script you'd like explaining in more detail? Want to help out? Leave a comment below!

## OC ReMix Albums Atom Feed

I've recently discovered the wonderful OverClocked ReMix thanks to the help of a friend (thank you for the suggestion ☺), and they have a bunch of cool albums you should totally listen to (my favourite so far is Esther's Dreams :D)!

To help keep up-to-date with the albums they release, I went looking for an RSS/Atom feed that I could subscribe to. Unfortunately, I didn't end up finding one - so I wrote a simple scraper to do the job for me, and I thought I'd share it on here. You can find it live over here.

The script itself uses my earlier atom.gen.php script, since I had it lying around. Here it is in full:

<?php

$settings = new stdClass();$settings->version = "0.1-alpha";
$settings->ocremix_url = "https://ocremix.org";$settings->album_url = "https://ocremix.org/albums/";
$settings->user_agent = "OCReMixAlbumsAtomFeedGenerator/$settings->version (https://starbeamrainbowlabs.com/labs/ocremix_atom/albums_atom.php; <webmaster@starbeamrainbowlabs.com> ) PHP/" . phpversion() . "+DOMDocument";
$settings->ignore_parse_errors = true;$settings->atom_gen_location = "./atom.gen.php";

// --------------------------------------------

require($settings->atom_gen_location); ini_set("user_agent",$settings->user_agent);
$ocremix_albums_html = file_get_contents($settings->album_url);

$ocremix_dom = new DOMDocument(); libxml_use_internal_errors($settings->ignore_parse_errors);
$ocremix_dom->loadHTML($ocremix_albums_html);

$ocremix_xpath = new DOMXPath($ocremix_dom);

$ocremix_albums =$ocremix_xpath->query(".//table[contains(concat(' ', normalize-space(./@class), ' '), ' data ')]//tr[contains(concat(' ', normalize-space(./@class), ' '), ' area-link ')]");

$ocremix_feed = new atomfeed();$ocremix_feed->title = "Albums | OC ReMix";
$ocremix_feed->id_uri =$settings->album_url;
$ocremix_feed->sq_icon_uri = "http://ocremix.org/favicon.ico";$ocremix_feed->addauthor("OverClocked ReMix", false, "https://ocremix.org/");
$ocremix_feed->addcategories([ "music", "remixes", "albums" ]); foreach ($ocremix_albums as $album) {$album_date = $album->childNodes[6]->textContent;$album_name = $album->childNodes[2]->childNodes[1]->textContent;$album_url = $album->childNodes[2]->childNodes[1]->attributes["href"]->textContent;$album_img_url = $album->childNodes[0]->childNodes[0]->attributes["src"]->textContent; // Make the urls absolute$album_url = $settings->ocremix_url .$album_url;
$album_img_url =$settings->ocremix_url .  $album_img_url;$content = "<p><a href='$album_url'><img src='$album_img_url' alt='$album_name' />$album_name</a> - released $album_date";$ocremix_feed->addentry(
$album_url,$album_name,
strtotime($album_date), "OverClocked ReMix",$content,
false,
[],
strtotime($album_date) ); } header("content-type: application/atom+xml"); echo($ocremix_feed->render());

Basically, I define a bunch of settings at the top for convenience (since I might end up changing them later). Then, I pull down the OcReMix albums page, extract the table of recent albums with a (not-so) tidy XPath query - since PHP's DOMDocument class doesn't seem to support anything else at a glance (yep, I used css-to-path to convert a CSS selector, since my XPath is a bit rusty and I was in a hurry :P).

Finally, I pull it apart to get a list of albums and their release dates - all of which goes straight into atom.gen.php and then straight out to the browser.

## Deep dive: Email, Trust, DKIM, SPF, and more

(Above: Lots of parcels. Hopefully you won't get this many through the door at once..... Source)

Now that I'm on holiday, I've got some time to write a few blog posts! As I've promised a few people a post on the email system, that's what I'll look at this this post. I'm going to take you on a deep dive through the email system and trust. We'll be journeying though the fields of DKIM signatures, and climb the SPF mountain. We'll also investigate why the internet needs to take this journey in the first place, and look at some of the challenges one faces when setting up their own mail server.

Hang on to your hats, ladies and gentlemen! If you get to the end, give yourself a virtual cookie :D

Before we start though, I'd like to mention that I'll be coming at this from the perspective of my own email server that I set up myself. Let me introduce to you the cast: Postfix (the SMTP MTA), Dovecot (the IMAP MDA), rspamd (the spam filter), and OpenDKIM (the thing that deals with DKIM signatures).

With that out of the way, let's begin! We'll start of our journey by mapping out the journey a typical email undertakes.

Let's say Bob Kerman wants to send Bill an email. Here's what happens:

1. Bill writes the email and hits send. His email client connects to his email server, logs in, and asks the server to deliver a message for him.
2. The server takes the email and reads the From header (in this case it's bill@billsboosters.com), figures out where the mail server is located, connects to it, and asks it to deliver Bob's message to Bill. mail.billsboosters.com takes the email and files it in Bill's inbox.
3. Bill connects to his mail server and retrieves Bob's message.

Of course, this is simplified in several places. mail.bobsrockets.com will obviously need to do a few DNS lookups to find billsboosters.com's mail server and fiddle with the headers of Bob's message a bit (such as adding a Received header etc.), and smtp.billsboosters.com won't just accept the message for delivery without checking out the server it came from first. How does it check though? What's preventing seanssatellites.net pretending to be bobsrockets.com and sending an imposter?

Until relatively recently, the answer was, well, nothing really. Anyone could send an email to anyone else without having to prove that they could indeed send email in the name of a domain. Try it out for yourself by telnetting to a mail server on port 25 (unencrypted SMTP) and trying in something like this:

HELO mail.bobsrockets.com
MAIL From: <frank@franksfuel.io>
RCPT TO <bill@billsboosters.com>
DATA
From: sean@seanssatellites.net
To: bill@billsboosters.com

Hello! This is a email to remind you.....
.
QUIT

Oh, my! Frank at franksfuel.io can connect to any mail server and pretend that sean@seanssatellites.net is sending a message to bill@billsboosters.com! Mail servers that allow this are called open relays, and today they usually find themselves on several blacklists within minutes. Ploys like these are easy to foil, thankfully (by only accepting mail for your own domains), but it still leaves the problem of what to do about random people connecting to your mail server delivering spam to your inbox that claims to be from someone they aren't supposed to be sending mail for.

In response, some mail servers demanded things like the IP that connects to send an email must reverse to the domain name that they want to send email from. Clever, but when you remember that anyone can change their own PTR records, you realise that it's just a minor annoyance to the determined spammer, and another hurdle to the legitimate person in setting up their own mail server!

Clearly, a better solution is needed. Time to introduce our first destination: SPF. SPF stands for sender policy framework, and defines a mechanism by which a mail server can determine which IP addresses a domain allows mail to be sent from in it's name. It's a TXT record that sites at the root of a domain. It looks something like this:

v=spf1 a mx ptr ip4:5.196.73.75 ip6:2001:41d0:e:74b::1 a:starbeamrainbowlabs.com a:mail.starbeamrainbowlabs.com -all

The above is my SPF TXT record for starbeamrainbowlabs.com. It's quite simple, really - let's break it down.

v=spf1

This just defines the version of the SPF standard. There's only one version so far, so we include this to state that this record is an SPF version 1 record.

a mx ptr

This says that the domain that the sender claims to be from must have an a and an mx record that matches the IP address that's sending the email. It also says that the ptr record associated with the sender's IP must resolve to the domain the sender claims to be sending from, as described above (it does help with dealing with infected machines and such).

ip4:5.196.73.75 ip6:2001:41d0:e:74b::1

This bit says that the IP addresses 5.196.73.75 and 2001:41d0:e:74d::1 are explicitly allowed to send mail in the name of starbeamrainbowlabs.com.

a:starbeamrainbowlabs.com a:mail.starbeamrainbowlabs.com

After all of the above, this bit isn't strictly necessary, but it says that all the IP addresses found in the a records for starbeamrainbowlabs.com and mail.starbeamrainbowlabs.com are allowed to send mail in the name of starbeamrainbowlabs.com.

-all

Lastly, this says that if you're not on the list, then your message should be rejected! Other variants on this include ~all (which says "put it in the spam box instead"), and +all (which says "accept it anyway", though I can't see how that's useful :P).

As you can see, SPF allows a mail server to verify if a given client is indeed allowed to send an email in the name of any particular domain name. For a while, this worked a treat - until a new problem arose.

Many of the mail servers on the internet don't (and probably still don't!) support encryption when connecting to and delivering mail, as certificates were expensive and difficult to get hold of (nowadays we've got LetsEncrypt who give out certificates for free!). The encryption used when mail servers connect to one another is practically identical to that used in HTTPS - so if done correctly, the identity of the remote server can be verified and the emails exchanged encrypted, if the world's certification authorities aren't corrupted, of course.

Since most emails weren't encrypted when in transit, a new problem arose: man-in-the-middle attacks, whereby an email is altered by one or more servers in the delivery chain. Thinking about it - this could still happen today even with encryption, if any one server along an email's route is compromised. To this end, another mechanism was desperately needed - one that would allow the receiving mail server to verify that an email's content / headers hadn't been surreptitiously altered since it left the origin mail server - potentially preventing awkward misunderstandings.

Enter stage left: DKIM! DKIM stands for Domain Keys Identified Mail - which, in short, means that it provides a method by which a receiving mail server can cryptographically prove that a message hasn't been altered during transit.

It works by having a public-private keypair, in which the public key can only decrypt things, but the private key is capable of encrypting things. A hash of the email's headers / content is computed and encrypted with the private key. Then the encrypted hash is attached to the email in the DKIM-Signature header.

The receiving mail server does a DNS lookup to find the public key, and decrypts the hash. It then computes it's own hash of the email headers / content, and compares it against the decrypted hash. If it matches, then the email hasn't been fiddled with along the way!

Of course, not all the headers in the email are hashed - only a specific subset are included in the hash, since some headers (like Received and X-Spam-Result) are added and altered during transit. If you're interested in implementing DKIM yourself - DigitalOcean have a smashing tutorial on the subject, which should adapt easily to whatever system you're running yourself.

With both of those in place, billsboosters.com's mail server can now verify that mail.bobsrockets.com is allowed to send the email on behalf of bobsrockets.com, and that the message content hasn't been tampered with since it left mail.bobsrockets.com. mail.billsboosters.com can also catch franksfuel.io in the act of trying to deliver spam from seanssatellites.net!

There is, however, one last piece of the puzzle left to reveal. With all this in place, how do you know if your mail was actually delivered? Is it possible to roll SPF and DKIM out gradually so that you can be sure you've done it correctly? This can be a particular issue for businesses and larger email server setups.

This is where DMARC comes in. It's a standard that lets you specify an email address you'd like to receive DMARC reports at, which contain statistics as to how many messages receiving mail servers got that claimed to be from you, and what they did with them. It also lets you specify what percentage of messages should be subject to DMARC filtering, so you can roll everything out slowly. Finally, it lets you specify what should happen to messages that fail either SPF, DKIM, or both - whether they should be allowed anyway (for testing purposes), quarantined, or rejected.

DMARC policies get specified (yep, you guessed it!) in a DNS record. unlike SPF though, they go in _dmarc.megsmicroprocessors.org as a TXT record, substituting megsmicroprocessors.org for your domain name. Here's an example:

v=DMARC1; p=none; rua=mailto:dmarc@megsmicroprocessors.org

This is just a simple example - you can get much more complex ones than this! Let's go through it step by step.

v=DMARC1;

Nothing to see here - just a version number as in SPF.

p=none;

This is the policy of what should happen to messages that fail. In this example we've used none, so messages that fail will still pass right on through. You can set it to quarantine or even reject as you gain confidence in your setup.

rua=mailto:dmarc@megsmicroprocessors.org

This specifies where you want DMARC reports to be sent. Each mail server that receives mail from your mail server will bundle up statistics and send them once a day to this address. The format is in XML (which won't be particularly easy to read), but there are free DMARC record parsers out there on the internet that you can use to decode the reports, like dmarcian.

That completes the puzzle. If you're still reading, then congratulations! Post in the comments and say hi :D We've climbed the SPF mountain and discovered how email servers validate who is allowed to send mail in the name of another domain. We've visited the DKIM signature fields and seen how the content of email can be checked to see if it's been altered during transit. Lastly, we took a stroll down DMARC lane to see how it's possible to be sure what other servers are doing with your mail, and how a large email server setup can implement DMARC, DKIM, and SPF more easily.

Of course, I'm not perfect - if there's something I've missed or got wrong, please let me know! I'll try to correct it as soon as possible.

Lastly, this is, as always, a starting point - not an ending point. An introduction if you will - it's up to you to research each technology more thoroughly - especially if you're thinking of implementing them yourself. I'll leave my sources at the bottom of this post if you'd like somewhere to start looking :-)

## Unmounting NFS Shares on Shutdown in OpenRC Manjaro

(Above: A clipart image of a server. Source)

Since I've been using Manjaro with OpenRC when I'm out and about, I've been steadily fixing little issues and niggles I've been encountering one by one (such as finding the option to let you move the windows on the taskbar panel around yourself).

One of the first issues I encountered was that OpenRC would generously take the network down before my NFS (network file system) shares have been unmounted. This results in lengthly delays when shutting down as each of the components of the NFS mounting system have to be waited upon by OpenRC and finally killed after taking too long to shut down.

Initially I attempted to investigate reordering the shutdown process, but that quickly grew out of hand as I was investigating, and I discovered that it was not a particularly practical or, indeed, stable solution to my particular problem. Next, I found autofs which looked like it would solve the problem by automatically mounting and unmounting my NFS shares as and when they are needed, but despite assisance from someone far more experienced in the Manjaro world than I (thank you!) couldn't get it to work reliably. In addition, it started exhibiting some odd behaviour like hiding all my other mounts in my /media folder, so I went on the hunt for better solution.

Quite by chance (all thanks to Duck Duck Go Instant Answers!) I stumbled upon NetworkManager dispatcher scripts. NetworkManager is the service / application that manages, surprisingly, the network connections on several major linux distributions - including Ubuntu (which I've used before), and, crucially, Manjaro. Although the answer said that the functionality I wanted had been removed, upon looking into the amtter it appeared to be an artifact of the way systemd shutdown the system, and so I gave it a whirl anyway just to see if it would work.

Thankfully it did end up working! To that end, I thought I'd (re)post the solution I found here for future reference, and in case it helps anyone else :-)

Assuming you already have your shares set up and working in your /etc/fstab, you can create a file in the folder /etc/NetworkManager/dispatcher.d/pre-down.d with the contents something like this:

#!/bin/sh

logger "Unmounting NFS shares gracefully before the network goes down...";

umount /media/bob/rocket-diagrams-nas;
umount /media/sean/satellite-schematics;

logger "Unmounted NFS shares successfully.";

Once done, you'll need to make it executable with a quick sudo chmod +x, and try rebooting to test it!

In theory, this could be used to do other things that need to be done before the network is taken down, like making a sekret tracking request to your web server for anti-theft purposes, or uploading a backup of your laptop's /etc directory automagically in case it comes to a sticky end.

## GalleryShare - Share a folder on your computer with a friend

Just yesterday, I was browsing my repositories on both my personal git server (git.starbeamrainbowlabs.com) and GitHub, and I stumbled across a program I wrote a while ago and then completely forgot about. It lets you share a directory of files and pictures via http. The picture above is from the wallpapers folder on my laptop here!

On further inspection, I discovered that it didn't require too much work to tidy it up for a release, so I spent an hour or two tidying up a few things, and here is version 0.1! My, it's been far too long since I've blogged about a release of something on here....

In the future, I might add an optional graphical interface to make it even easier for people to use :D

It's actually quite simple. It's powered by the System.Net.HttpServer class (so Windows users will either need to install mono or give it administrative privileges, which is a real shame) since I originally wrote it before I put the GlidingSquirrel together, though it does have it's own routing system of my own devising.

The pages it serves themselves are actually plain XML files, which are rendered with XSLT by the user's browser. This keeps the content that GalleryShare has to dynamically generate simple, and has the added benefit that it can be generated with C&csharp;'s System.Xml.XmlWriter class. It's practically a browser-side templating system, which also has the added benefit of providing an XML-based API for others to consume.

Thumbnails are generated with C♯'s inbuilt System.Drawing image handling functions - I did initially want to use Magick.NET (C♯ bindings for the awesome ImageMagick library) has the System.Drawing classes appear to be a bit funny about the images they'll accept, but Linux support doesn't seem to have landed just yet.

Are you interested in a more in-depth look at how GalleryShare renders thumbnails, or outputs XML? Perhaps the XSLT has caught your eye. Let me know in the comments below!

## /r/dailyprogrammer hard challenge #322: Static HTTP 1.0 server

Recently I happened to stumble across the dailyprogrammer subreddit's latest challenge. It was for a static HTTP 1.0 server, and while I built something similar for my networking ACW, I thought I'd give this one a go to create an extendable http server that I can use in other projects. If you want to follow along, you can find the challenge here!

My language of choice, as you might have guessed, was C♯ (I know that C♯ has a HttpServer class inbuilt already, but to listen on 0.0.0.0 on Windows it requires administrative privileges).

It ended up going rather well, actually. In a little less than 24 hours after reading the post, I had myself a working solution, and I thought I'd share here how I built it. Let's start with a class diagram:

(Above: A class diagram for the GlidingSquirrel. Is this diagram better than the last one I drew?)

I'm only showing properties on here, as I'll be showing you the methods attached to each class later. It's a pretty simple design, actually - HttpServer deals with all the core HTTP and networking logic, FileHttpServer handles the file system calls (and can be swapped out for your own class), and HttpRequest, HttpResponse, HttpMethod, HttpResponseCode all store the data parsed out from the raw request coming in, and the data we're about to send back out again.

With a general idea as to how it's put together, lets dive into how it actually works. HttpServer would probably be a good place to start:

public abstract class HttpServer
{
public static readonly string Version = "0.1-alpha";

public string BindEndpoint { /* ... */ }

protected TcpListener server;

private Mime mimeLookup = new Mime();
public Dictionary<string, string> MimeTypeOverrides = new Dictionary<string, string>() {
[".html"] = "text/html"
};

{ /* ... */ }
public HttpServer(int inPort) : this(IPAddress.IPv6Any, inPort)
{
}

public async Task Start() { /* ... */ }

public string LookupMimeType(string filePath) { /* ... */ }

protected async void HandleClientThreadRoot(object transferredClient) { /* ... */ }

public async Task HandleClient(TcpClient client) { /* ... */ }

public abstract Task HandleRequest(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response);
}

(Full version)

It's heavily abbreviated because there's actually quite a bit of code to get through here, but you get the general idea. The start method is the main loop that accepts the TcpClients, and calls HandleClientThreadRoot for each client it accepts. I decided to use the inbuilt ThreadPool class to do the threading for me here:

TcpClient nextClient = await server.AcceptTcpClientAsync();
ThreadPool.QueueUserWorkItem(new WaitCallback(HandleClientThreadRoot), nextClient);

C♯ handles all the thread spawning and killing for me internally this way, which is rather nice. Next, HandleClientThreadRoot sets up a net to catch any errors that are thrown by the next stage (as we're now in a new thread, which can make debugging a nightmare otherwise), and then calls the main HandleClient:

try
{
await HandleClient(client);
}
catch(Exception error)
{
Console.WriteLine(error);
}
finally
{
client.Close();
}

No matter what happens, the client's connection will always get closed. HandleClient is where the magic start to happen. It attaches a StreamReader and a StreamWriter to the client:

StreamReader source = new StreamReader(client.GetStream());
StreamWriter destination = new StreamWriter(client.GetStream()) { AutoFlush = true };

...and calls a static method on HttpRequest to read in and decode the request:

HttpRequest request = await HttpRequest.FromStream(source);
request.ClientAddress = client.Client.RemoteEndPoint as IPEndPoint;

More on that later. With the request decoded, HandleClient hands off the request to the abstract method HandleRequest - but not before setting up a secondary safety net first:

try
{
await HandleRequest(request, response);
}
catch(Exception error)
{
response.ResponseCode = new HttpResponseCode(503, "Server Error Occurred");
await response.SetBody(
$"An error ocurred whilst serving your request to '{request.Url}'. Details:\n\n" +$"{error.ToString()}"
);
}

This secondary safety net means that we can send a meaningful error message back to the requesting client in the case that the abstract request handler throws an exception for some reason. In the future, I'll probably make this customisable - after all, you don't always want to let the client know exactly what crashed inside the server's internals!

The FileHttpServer class that handles the file system logic is quite simple, actually. The magic is in it's implementation of the abstract HandleRequest method that the HttpServer itself exposes:

public override async Task HandleRequest(HttpRequest request, HttpResponse response)
{
if(request.Url.Contains(".."))
{
await response.SetBody("Error the requested path contains dangerous characters.");
return;
}

string filePath = getFilePathFromRequestUrl(request.Url);
if(!File.Exists(filePath))
{
response.ResponseCode = HttpResponseCode.NotFound;
await response.SetBody($"Error: The file path '{request.Url}' could not be found.\n"); return; } FileInfo requestFileStat = null; try { requestFileStat = new FileInfo(filePath); } catch(UnauthorizedAccessException error) { response.ResponseCode = HttpResponseCode.Forbidden; await response.SetBody( "Unfortunately, the server was unable to access the file requested.\n" + "Details:\n\n" + error.ToString() + "\n" ); return; } response.Headers.Add("content-type", LookupMimeType(filePath)); response.Headers.Add("content-length", requestFileStat.Length.ToString()); if(request.Method == HttpMethod.GET) { response.Body = new StreamReader(filePath); } } With all the helper methods and properties on HttpResponse, it's much shorter than it would otherwise be! Let's go through it step by step. if(request.Url.Contains("..")) This first step is a quick check for anything obvious that could be used against the server to break out of the web root. There are probably other dangerous things you can do(or try to do, anyway!) to a web server to attempt to trick it into returning arbitrary files, but I can't think of any of the top of my head that aren't covered further down. If you can, let me know in the comments! string filePath = getFilePathFromRequestUrl(request.Url); Next, we translate the raw path received in the request into a path to a file on disk. Let's take a look inside that method: protected string getFilePathFromRequestUrl(string requestUrl) { return$"{WebRoot}{requestUrl}";
}

It's rather simplistic, I know. I can't help but feel that there's something I missed here.... Let me know if you can think of anything. (If you're interested about the dollar syntax there - it's called an interpolated string, and is new in C♯ 6! Fancy name, I know. Check it out!)

if(!File.Exists(filePath))
{
response.ResponseCode = HttpResponseCode.NotFound;
await response.SetBody($"Error: The file path '{request.Url}' could not be found.\n"); return; } Another obvious check. Can't have the server crashing every time it runs into a 404! A somewhat interesting note here: File.Exists only checks to see if there's a file that exists under the specified path. To check for the existence of a directory, you have to use Directory.Exists - which would make directory listing rather easy to implement. I might actually try that later - with an option to turn it off, of course. FileInfo requestFileStat = null; try { requestFileStat = new FileInfo(filePath); } catch(UnauthorizedAccessException error) { response.ResponseCode = HttpResponseCode.Forbidden; await response.SetBody( "Unfortunately, the server was unable to access the file requested.\n" + "Details:\n\n" + error.ToString() + "\n" ); return; } Ok, on to something that might be a bit more unfamiliar. The FileInfo class can be used to get, unsurprisingly, information about a file. You can get all sorts of statistics about a file or directory with it, such as the last modified time, whether it's read-only from the perspective of the current user, etc. We're only interested in the size of the file though for the next few lines: response.Headers.Add("content-type", LookupMimeType(filePath)); response.Headers.Add("content-length", requestFileStat.Length.ToString()); These headers are important, as you might expect. Browsers to tend to like to know the type of content they are receiving - and especially it's size. if(request.Method == HttpMethod.GET) { response.Body = new StreamReader(filePath); } Lastly, we send the file's contents back to the user in the response - but only if it's a GET request. This rather neatly takes care of HEAD requests - but might cause issues elsewhere. I'll probably end up changing it if it does become an issue. Anyway, now that we've covered everything right up to sending the response back to the client, let's end our tour with a look at the request parsing system. It's a bit backwards, but it does seem to work in an odd sort of way! It all starts in HttpRequest.FromStream. public static async Task<HttpRequest> FromStream(StreamReader source) { HttpRequest request = new HttpRequest(); // Parse the first line string firstLine = await source.ReadLineAsync(); var firstLineData = ParseFirstLine(firstLine); request.HttpVersion = firstLineData.httpVersion; request.Method = firstLineData.requestMethod; request.Url = firstLineData.requestPath; // Extract the headers List<string> rawHeaders = new List<string>(); string nextLine; while((nextLine = source.ReadLine()).Length > 0) rawHeaders.Add(nextLine); request.Headers = ParseHeaders(rawHeaders); // Store the source stream as the request body now that we've extracts the headers request.Body = source; return request; } It looks deceptively simple at first glance. To start with, I read in the first line, extract everything useful from it, and attach them to a new request object. Then, I read in all the headers I can find, parse those too, and attach them to the request object we're building. Finally, I attach the StreamReader to the request itself, as it's now pointing at the body of the request from the user. I haven't actually tested this, as I don't actually use it anywhere just yet, but it's a nice reminder just in case I do end up needing it :-) Now, let's take a look at the cream on the cake - the method that parses the first line of the incoming request. I'm quite pleased with this actually, as it's my first time using a brand new feature of C♯: public static (float httpVersion, HttpMethod requestMethod, string requestPath) ParseFirstLine(string firstLine) { List<string> lineParts = new List<string>(firstLine.Split(' ')); float httpVersion = float.Parse(lineParts.Last().Split('/')[1]); HttpMethod httpMethod = MethodFromString(lineParts.First()); lineParts.RemoveAt(0); lineParts.RemoveAt(lineParts.Count - 1); string requestUrl = lineParts.Aggregate((string one, string two) =>$"{one} {two}");

return (
httpVersion,
httpMethod,
requestUrl
);
}

Monodevelop, my C♯ IDE, appears to go absolutely nuts over this with red squiggly lines everywhere, but it still compiles just fine :D

As I was writing this, a thought popped into my head that a tuple would be perfect here. After reading somewhere a month or two ago about a new tuple syntax that's coming to C♯ I thought I'd get awesomely distracted and take a look before continuing, and what I found was really cool. In C♯ 7 (the latest and quite possibly greatest version of C♯ to come yet!), there's a new feature called value tuples, which let's you dynamically declare tuples like I have above. They're already fully supported by the C♯ compiler, so you can use them today! Just try to ignore your editor if it gets as confused as mine did... :P

If you're interested in learning more about them, I'll leave a few links at the bottom of this post. Anyway, back to the GlidingSquirrel! Other than the new value tuples in the above, there's not much going on, actually. A few linq calls take care of the heavy lifting quite nicely.

And finally, here's my header parsing method.

public static Dictionary<string, string> ParseHeaders(List<string> rawHeaders)
{
Dictionary<string, string> result = new Dictionary<string, string>();

{
KeyValuePair<string, string> nextHeader = new KeyValuePair<string, string>(
parts[0].Trim().ToLower(),
parts[1].Trim()
);
result[nextHeader.Key] = $"{result[nextHeader.Key]},{nextHeader.Value}"; else result[nextHeader.Key] = nextHeader.Value; } return result; } While I have attempted to build in support for multiple definitions of the same header according to the spec, I haven't actually encountered a time when it's actually been needed. Again, this is one of those things I've built in now for later - as I do intend on updating this and adding more features later - and perhaps even work it into another secret project I might post about soon. Lastly, I'll leave you with a link to the repository I'm storing the code for the GlidingSquirrel, and a few links for your enjoyment: GlidingSquirrel ### Sources and Further Reading ## Access your home linux box from anywhere with SSH tunnels (Header by GDJ from openclipart.org. Source page) ....and other things! Recently, I bought a Raspberry Pi 3. Now that the rest of the components have arrived, I've got a rather nice little home server that's got a 1 terabyte WD PiDrive attached to it to provide lots of lovely shared storage, which is rather nice. However, within a few weeks I was faced with a problem. How do I access my new box to configure it from my internship when I'm on lunch? Faced with such a challenge, I did what anyone would, and took to the internet to find a solution. It didn't take long. A while ago I heard about these things called 'SSH tunnels', which, while not designed for a high throughput, are more than adequate for a low-intensity SSH connection that runs a few kilobytes a second in either direction. After reading this excellent answer by erik on the Unix & Linux StackExchange, I had an understanding of how SSH tunnels work, and was ready to put together a solution. You should go and read that answer if you'd like to understand SSH tunnels too - it explains it much better than I ever could :P With that knowledge in hand, I went about planning the SSH tunnel. I already have a server a public IP address (it's hosting this website!), so I needed a reverse tunnel to allow me to access a port local to my linux box at home (called elessar - a virtual cookie for anyone who gets the reference!) from starbeamrainbowlabs.com. Important! Ask yourself whether it's moral and ethical to set up an ssh tunnel before you think about following along with this article! If you find yourself behind a firewall or something similar, then the chances are that it's there for a good reason - and you might get into trouble if you try and circumvent it. I won't be held responsible for any loss or damages of any description caused by the reading of this post. First job: create a limited account on starbeamrainbowlabs.com for elessar to SSH into. That's easy: sudo useradd --system ssh-tunnel Then, with a few quick lines in /etc/ssh/sshd_config: Match User ssh-tunnel ForceCommand echo 'This account can only be used for ssh tunnelling.' ....we can prevent the ssh-tunnel user from being abused to gain shell access to the server (let me know if there are any further measures I can put in place here). Now that I had a user account to ssh in as, I could set up a public / private keypair to authenticate with starbeamrainbowlabs.com, and cook up an SSH command for elessar that would set up the appropriate tunnel. After fiddling around a bit, I came up with this that did the job: ssh -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com Very cool. So with that command executing on elessar, I could ssh into elessar from starbeamrainbowlabs.com! In short, it sets up a tunnel that will make port 30582 on starbeamrainbowlabs.com tunnel through to port 5724 on elessar - the port on elessar that has SSH running on it, without allocating a pseudo-tty to save resources. explainshell.com can, well, explain it in more detail if you're interested. Having an SSH command that would set up the tunnel is nice, but it's not very useful, since I have to execute it first before I can actually SSH into elessar from afar. The solution was actually a little bit complicated. First, I wrote a simple systemd service file (systemd is what I have installed, since it's vanilla raspbian - this should be easily adaptable to other systems and setups) to start the SSH tunnel automagically on boot: [Unit] Description=SSH tunnel from starbeamrainbowlabs.com to local ssh server. [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/usr/bin/ssh -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com [Install] WantedBy=network-online.target I quickly realised that there were a few flaws with this approach. Firstly, it tried to start the SSH connection before my router had connected to the internet, since my router starts faster than the box that initialises the fibre connection to my ISP. Secondly, it fails to retry when the connection dies. The first problem can be solved relatively easily, by wrapping the ssh command in a clever bit of shell scripting: /bin/sh -c 'until ping -c1 starbeamrainbowlabs.com &>/dev/null && sleep 5; do :; done && /usr/bin/ssh -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com The above tries to ping starbeamrainbowlabs.com every 5 seconds until it succeeds, and only then does it attempt to open the SSH connection. This solves the first problem. To solve the second, we need to look at autossh. Autossh is a small tool that monitors an ssh connection in a variety of configurable ways and restarts the connection if ever dies for whatever reason. You can install it with your favourite package manager: sudo apt install autossh Substitute apt with whatever package manager you use on your system. With it installed, we can use a command like this: autossh -o "UserKnownHostsFile /home/ssh-tunnel/.ssh/known_hosts" -o "IdentityFile /home/ssh-tunnel/.ssh/ssh-tunnel_ed25519" -o "PubkeyAuthentication=yes" -o "PasswordAuthentication=no" -o "ServerAliveInterval 900" -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 -p 7261 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com to automatically start our ssh tunnel, and restart it if anything goes wrong. Note all the extra settings I had to specify here. This is because even though I had many of them specified in ~/.ssh/config for the ssh-tunnel user, because of systemd's weird environment when it starts a service, I found I had to specify everything in the command line with absolute paths (ugh). Basically, the above tells autossh where the known_hosts file is (important for automation!), that it should only attempt public / private keypair authentication and not password authentication, that it should check the server's still there every 15 minutes, and all the other things we figured out above. Finally, I combined the solutions I came up with for both problems, which left me with this: [Unit] Description=SSH tunnel from starbeamrainbowlabs.com to local ssh server. [Service] Type=simple ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'until ping -c1 starbeamrainbowlabs.com &>/dev/null && sleep 5; do :; done && /usr/bin/autossh -o "UserKnownHostsFile /home/pi/.ssh/known_hosts" -o "IdentityFile /home/pi/.ssh/ssh-tunnel_ed25519" -o "PubkeyAuthentication=yes" -o "PasswordAuthentication=no" -o "ServerAliveInterval 900" -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 -p 7261 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com' [Install] WantedBy=network-online.target Here's a version that utilises the -f parameter of autossh to put the autossh into the background, which eliminates the sh parent process: [Unit] Description=SSH tunnel from starbeamrainbowlabs.com to local ssh server. [Service] Type=forking Environment=AUTOSSH_PIDFILE=/var/run/sbrl-ssh-tunnel/ssh-tunnel.pid PIDFile=/var/run/sbrl-ssh-tunnel/ssh-tunnel.pid ExecStartPre=/bin/mkdir -p /var/run/sbrl-ssh-tunnel ExecStartPre=-/bin/chown ssh-tunnel:ssh-tunnel /var/run/sbrl-ssh-tunnel ExecStart=/bin/sh -c 'until ping -c1 starbeamrainbowlabs.com &>/dev/null && sleep 5; do :; done && /usr/bin/autossh -f -o "UserKnownHostsFile /home/pi/.ssh/known_hosts" -o "IdentityFile /home/pi/.ssh/ssh-tunnel_ed25519" -o "PubkeyAuthentication=yes" -o "PasswordAuthentication=no" -o "ServerAliveInterval 900" -TN -R30582:localhost:5724 -p 7261 ssh-tunnel@starbeamrainbowlabs.com' [Install] WantedBy=network-online.target I ended up further modifying the above to set up an additional tunnel to allow elessar to send emails via the postfix email server that's running on starbeamrainbowlabs.com. Let me know if you'd be interested in a tutorial on this! ### Sources and Futher Reading ## PixelBot Part 2: Devices need protocols, apparently So there I was. I'd just got home, turned on my laptop, opened the Arduino IDE and Monodevelop, and then.... nothing. I knew I wanted my PixelBot to talk to the PixelHub I'd started writing, but I was confused as to how I could make it happen. In this kind of situation, I realised that although I knew what I wanted them to do, I hadn't figured out the how. As it happens, when you're trying to get one (or more, in this case) different devices to talk to each other, there's something rather useful that helps them all to speak the same language: a protocol. A protocol is a specification that defines the language that different devices use to talk to each other and exchange messages. Defining one before you start writing a networked program is probably a good idea - I find particularly helpful to write a specification for the protocol that the program(s) I'm writing, especially if their function(s) is/are complicated. To this end, I've ended up spending a considerable amount of time drawing up the PixelHub Protocol - a specification document that defines how my PixelHub server is going to talk to a swarm of PixelBots. It might seem strange at first, but I decided on a (mostly) binary protocol. Upon closer inspection though, (I hope) it makes a lot of sense. Since the Arduino is programmed using C++ as it has a limited amount of memory, it doesn't have any of the standard string manipulation function that you're used to in C♯. Since C++ is undoubtedly the harder of the 2 to write, I decided to make it easier to write the C++ rather than the C&sharp. Messages on the Arduino side are come in as a byte[] array, so (in theory) it should be easy to pick out certain known parts of the array and cast them into various different fundamental types. With the specification written, the next step in my PixelBot journey is to actually implement it, which I'll be posting about in the next entry in this series! ## Easier TCP Networking in C♯ I see all sorts of C♯ networking tutorials out there telling you that you have to use byte arrays and buffers and all sorts of other complicated things if you ever want to talk to another machine over the network. Frankly, it's all rather confusing. Thankfully though, it doesn't have to stay this way. I've learnt a different way of doing TCP networking in C♯ at University (thanks Brian!), and I realised the other day I've never actually written a blog post about it (that I can remember, anyway!). If you know how to read and write files and understand some basic networking concepts (IP addresses, ports, what TCP and UDP are, etc.), you'll have no problems understanding this. ### Server The easiest way to explain it is to demonstrate. Let's build a quick server / client program where the server says hello to the client. Here's the server code:  // Server.cs using System; using System.Net; using System.Net.Sockets; using System.Threading.Tasks; using System.IO; public class Server { public readonly int Port; public Server(int inPort) { Port = inPort; string s; } public async Task Start() { TcpListener server = new TcpListener(IPAddress.Any, Port); server.Start(); while (true) { TcpClient nextClient = await server.AcceptTcpClientAsync(); StreamReader incoming = new StreamReader(nextClient.GetStream()); StreamWriter outgoing = new StreamWriter(nextClient.GetStream()) { AutoFlush = true }; string name = (await incoming.ReadLineAsync()).Trim(); await outgoing.WriteLineAsync($"Hello, {name}!");

Console.WriteLine("Said hello to {0}", name);

nextClient.Close();
}
}
}

// Use it like this in your Main() method:
Server server = new Server(6666);
server.Start().Wait();


Technically speaking, that asynchronous code ought to be running in a separate thread - I've omitted it to make it slightly simpler :-) Let's break this down. The important bit is in the Start() method - the rest is just sugar around it to make it run if you want to copy and paste it. First, we create & start a TcpListener:

TcpListener server = new TcpListener(IPAddress.Any, Port);
server.Start();

Once done, we enter a loop, and wait for the next client:

TcpClient nextClient = await server.AcceptTcpClientAsync();

Now that we have a client to talk to, we attach a StreamReader and a StreamWriter with a special option set on it to allow us to talk to the remote client with ease. The option set on the StreamWriter is AutoFlush, and it basically tells it to flush it's internal buffer every time we write to it - that way things we write to it always hit the TcpClient underneath. Depending on your setup the TcpClient does some internal buffering & optimisations anyway, so we don't need the second layer of buffering here:

StreamReader incoming = new StreamReader(nextClient.GetStream());
StreamWriter outgoing = new StreamWriter(nextClient.GetStream()) { AutoFlush = true };

With that, the rest should be fairly simple to understand:

string name = (await incoming.ReadLineAsync()).Trim();
await outgoing.WriteLineAsync($"Hello, {name}!"); Console.WriteLine("Said hello to {0}", name); nextClient.Close(); First, we grab the first line that the client sends us, and trim of any whitespace that's lurking around. Then, we send back a friendly hello message to client, before logging what we've done to the console and closing the connection. ### Client Now that you've seen the server code, the client code should be fairly self explanatory. The important lines are highlighted:  using System; using System.Net; using System.Net.Sockets; using System.Threading.Tasks; using System.IO; public class Client { public readonly string Hostname; public readonly int Port; public Client(string inHostname, int inPort) { Hostname = inHostname; uint a; Port = inPort; } public async Task GetHello(string name) { TcpClient client = new TcpClient(); client.Connect(Hostname, Port); StreamReader incoming = new StreamReader(client.GetStream()); StreamWriter outgoing = new StreamWriter(client.GetStream()) { AutoFlush = true }; await outgoing.WriteLineAsync(name); return (await incoming.ReadLineAsync()).Trim(); } } // Use it like this in your Main() method: Client client = new Client("localhost", 6666); Console.Write("Enter your name: "); Console.WriteLine("The server said: {0}", client.GetHello(Console.ReadLine()).Result);  First, we create a new client and connect it to the server. Next, we connect the StreamReader and StreamWriter instances to the TcpClient, and then we send the name to the server. Finally, we read the response the server sent us and return it. Easy! Here's some example outputs: Client:  ./NetworkingDemo-Server.exe Said hello to Bill  Server:  ./NetworkingDemo-Client.exe Enter your name: Bill The server said: Hello, Bill!  The above code should work on Mac, Windows, and Linux. Granted, it's not the most efficient way of doing things, but it should be fine for most general purposes. Personally, I think the trade-off between performance and readability/ease of understanding of code is totally worth it. If you prefer, I've got an archive of the above code I wrote for this blog post - complete with binaries. You can find it here: NetworkingDemo.7z. ## Picking the right interface for multicast communications At the recent hardware meetup, I was faced with an interesting problem: I was trying to communicate with my Wemos over multicast UDP in order to get it to automatically discover my PixelHub Server, but the multicast pings were going out over the wrong interface - I had both an ethernet cable plugged in and a WiFi hotspot running on my integrated wireless card. The solution to this is not as simple you might think - you have to not only pick the right interface, but also the right version of the IP protocol. You also have to have some way to picking the correct interface in the first place. Let's say you have a big beefy PC with a wireless card and 2 ethernet ports that are (for some magical reason) all in use at the same time, and you want to communicate with another device over your wireless card and not either of your ethernet ports. I developed this on my linux laptop, but it should work just fine on other OSes. To start, it's probably a good idea to list all of our network interfaces: using System.Net.NetworkInformation; // ... NetworkInterface[] nics = NetworkInterface.GetAllNetworkInterfaces(); foreach (NetworkInterface nic in nics) { Console.WriteLine("Id: {0} - Description: {1}", nic.Id, nic.Description); } This (on my machine at least!) outputs something like this: eth0 - eth0 lo - lo wlan0 - wlan0 Your machine will probably output something different. Next, since you can't normally address this list of network interfaces directly by name, we need to write a method to do it for us: public static NetworkInterface GetNetworkIndexByName4(string targetInterfaceName) { NetworkInterface[] nics = NetworkInterface.GetAllNetworkInterfaces(); foreach (NetworkInterface nic in nics) { if (nic.Id == targetInterfaceName) return nic; } throw new Exception($"Error: Can't find network interface with the name {targetInterfaceName}.");
}

Pretty simple, right? We're not out the woods yet though - next we need to tell our UdpClient to talk on a specific network interface. Speaking of which, let's set up that UdpClient so that we can use it to do stuff with multicast:

using System.Net;

// ...

UdpClient client = new UdpClient(5050);
client.JoinMulticastGroup(IPAddress.Parse("239.62.148.30"));

With that out of the way, we can now deal with telling the UcpClient which network interface it should be talking on. This is actually quite tricky, since the UdpClient doesn't take a NetworkInterface directly. Let's define another helper method:

public static int GetIPv4Index(this NetworkInterface nic)
{
IPInterfaceProperties ipProps = nic.GetIPProperties();
IPv4InterfaceProperties ip4Props = ipProps.GetIPv4Properties();
return ip4Props.Index;
}

The above extension method gets the index of the IPv4 interface of the network interface. Since at the moment we are in the middle of a (frustratingly slow) transition from IPv4 and IPv6, each network interface must have both an IPv4 interface, for talking to other IPv4 hosts, and an IPv6 interface for talking to IPv6 hosts. In this example I'm using IPv4, since the Wemos I want to talk to doesn't support IPv6 :-(

Now that we have a way to get the index of a network interface, we need to translate it into something that the UdpClient understands:

int interfaceIndex = (int)IPAddress.HostToNetworkOrder(NetTools.GetNetworkIndexByName4(NetworkInterfaceName));

That complicated! Thankfully, we don't need to pick it apart completely - it just works :-)

Now that we have the interface index in the right format, all we have to do is tell the UdpClient about it. Again, this is also slightly overcomplicated:

beacon.Client.SetSocketOption(
SocketOptionLevel.IP,
SocketOptionName.MulticastInterface,
interfaceIndex
);

Make sure that you put this call before you join the multicast group. With that done, your UdpClient should finally be talking on the right interface!

Whew! That was quite the rabbit hole (I sent my regards to the rabbit :P). If you have any issues with getting it to work, I'm happy to help - just post a comment down below.