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Understanding your compiler: C#

Sorry for the (very) late post! I fell rather ill on the day before I was going to write the next post, and haven't been well enough to write it until now! Hopefully more cool posts will be on their way soon :-)

A nice picture of Durham Cathedral. (Above: A nice picture of Durham Cathedral. Taken by @euruicimages.)

How many times have you just finished adding a new feature to your latest and greatest program, and hit the "Run" button in Visual Studio or Monodevelop? Have you ever wondered what happens under the hood? Have you ever encountered a strange build error, and just googled the error message in the hope of finding a solution?

In this post, I'm going take you on a journey to understand the build process for a typical C♯ program that happens every time you press Ctrl + Shift + B (or F8 in Monodevelop). I also hope to show you why I think it's important to understand what happens behind the scenes.

The hierarchy of the c♯ build system.

To start any journey, we need a map. I've created a simple diagram for our journey. We'll dive into the world of the project file further down. Lastly, we'll end our journey at the individual source code files that actually make up your project.

Before that though, we need to make a quick stop in your sln file. The sln file (or Solution File) is the place where everything starts. Normally, you only get one solution file for each project you create. It's the file that keeps track of the name of your project, its id, and where all the projects are that your solution references (they're usually in appropriately named subfolders). Note that it doesn't keep references to the other projects that you reference (that's done at the project file level).

Solution files sometimes automatically detected too (xbuild does this for sure). If you're in a command line or terminal, you can build an entire solution with just one command, without having to open Visual Studio or Monodevelop:

cd /path/to/awesome/project
# Windows
msbuild AwesomeSpaceProject.sln
# Linux / Mono

With that out of the way, we can talk about project files. Project files define which source code files should be built, and how. You can even add custom triggers that run at any time before, during, or after the build process here (this is how I embedded commit hashes in a C♯ binary)!

Though the syntax is quite simple, much of it is, sadly, un or underdocumented. Thankfully most of it is quite intuitive, and a little experimentation goes a long way:

        <Reference Include="System" />
        <Reference Include="System.Drawing" />
        <Compile Include="Program.cs" />
        <Compile Include="GameObjects/Spaceship.cs" />
        <Compile Include="GameObjects/Enemy.cs" />
        <EmbeddedResource Include="Resources\Spritesheet.png" />
        <EmbeddedResource Include="Resources\CoolSpace.ttf" />

The above is a (simplified) example if a project file. It might be called something like CoolSpace.csproj. It references a few core assemblies, specifies a few C♯ files for compiling, and embeds a resource or two.

Of course, these files are generated for you automatically, but it's always helpful to know how to works so not only can you fix it more easily when it goes wrong, but you can also extend it to do extra things that you can't through the user interface, like use wildcards (careful! Too many wildcards can slow down your build) to specify a range of files that you wan to embed without having to go around them all one by one.

Next, let's talk about references. References allow you to pull in code from elsewhere, like a core system library, another project (that's how you link 2 projects in (or even out of!) a solution together), a library of sorts (like Nuget), or another random DLL or EXE (yes, you can reference other executable files) file lying around. With references, yo can spread your code around loads of files and pull in libraries from all over the galaxy and have the build process follow all of your references around and tie everything up into a nice neat package for you.

The next piece of the puzzle is the builder. The software that actually builds your code. On Windows with Visual Studio, it's called msbuild, and is the original build tool, created by Microsoft, that sets the standard. On Linux, there's a different (but very similar) tool called xbuild. xbuild implements the standard that msbuild sets, allowing solutions written on Windows with Visual Studio to be compiled 9 times out of 10 on Linux (and probably Mac too, though I don't have one to check - let me know in the comments if you have one!) without any changes.

The final stone in the bridge, so to speak, is your code itself. The builder (whether it be xbuild or msbuild) preprocesses each included file into an object file, which are then all linked together into the final executable binary, which itself contains common intermediate language (or CIL) which is executed by your operating system (or mono on Linux / Mac). While CIL is a different topic for a separate time, it's still important, so I'm mentioning it here.

If you've made it this far, congratulations! I hope that it made sense. If not (or even if it did!), please leave a comment down below and I'll try to help you out :-)

Forgotten Parallax Bicycles

The forgotten parallax bicycles. In June last year (that feels weird to type), I created another one of my little HTML5 Canvas demos - this time of some hills that parallaxly scroll with a bicycle on a road. I actually made it as a (birthday?) present for someone I seem to remember - and I even released it on my website here, but I somehow seem to have forgotten to post about it here on my blog, so I'm doing so now :-)

You can find it here: Parallax Bicycle

At the time the bicycle itself in particular was incredibly fiddly to get working right if I recall correctly. The hills in the background are procedurally generated too - they are on a (seamless!) loop and repeat every so often. The seamless part was also interesting to get working right.

Happy (belated) New Year!

A starry sky, randomly generated by the program below.

Happy new year! Sorry this post is a bit late - I was busily putting the above together after my last post on browserify. Anyway, I hope that you have a peaceful and awesome new year :-)

If you look up into the sky tonight, what do you see? Hopefully something more-or-less like my latest demo (just more detailed :P). As you can see in the above picture, this time, I've created a canvas animation of a starry sky. The stars even rotate and twinkle, and are slightly dimmer near the bottom-centre of the screen.

Check it out for yourself: Starry Sky

Now all it needs are some fireworks....

For the curious the code is available on my personal git server.

Transform your javascript with Browserify

Tired of battling endless <script> tags in your html files? Fed up with messing with a dozen libraries cluttering up the place? Can't see the wood from the trees? Try browserify (+ rollupify + wzrd)! It's amazing! It's awesome! It tidies up your code for you, so you don't have to (perhaps not :P)!

Seriously though, I've just been playing around with browserify, and it's awesome. It's that missing thing I've been trying to find for a long time. But what does it actually do, you ask?

Well, perhaps it's best to use an example. Consider these (relatively) harmless javascript files:

// SillySay.js
"use strict";

function sillySay(sentence) {
    // Split the sentence up into words
    var words = splitWords(sentence);

    // Loop over all the words in the above array and display them one by one
    for(let i in words) {
// WordSplitter.js
"use strict";
function splitWords(sentence) {
    // Split the sentence on whitespace and return the resulting array
    return sentence.split(/\s+/g);

To use our (perfectly ridiculous) example code, we not only have to include SillySay.js, but WordSplitter.js (this could be a library you use for example) as well:

<!DOCTYPE html>
        <meta charset='utf-8' />
        <title>Silly Say Demo</title>
        <p>Silly Say Demo</p>
        <p>By <a href="">Starbeamrainbowlabs</a></p>

        <script src="WordSplitter.js"></script>
        <script src="SillySay.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
            window.addEventListener("load", function(event) {
                sillySay("This is a test");

            html, body { font-size: 100%; }
                font-family: sans-serif;

That's looking a bit messy, but imagine what it'd be like if you added another few libraries? Or a new feature in a separate file? See the problem? Browserify solves just this issue. It analyses the dependencies of the entry point to your app, and bundles up all your code into a single file, nice and neat. You can add extra transforms (like plugins), too, to do extra things like automatically insert your app's version, or include other data files automatically, or transpile other languages to javascript automagically (full list here).

Sounds cool yet? Let me give you a quick tutorial on how I set up Browserify, with Rollupify and Wzrd.

Firstly, we need to set things up. If you don't have Node.js installed, do that now. You'll also get npm - Node's (perfectly awesome!) package manager. Next, let's create a quick project and paste in the code above. I've recorded an asciicast (as you may have seen a few times before here) of me going through the process:

(Can't see the asciicast above? Try viewing it here.)

If you'd like to take a look at the final result, as written in the asciicast above, you can find it over here. Questions and comments are welcome below :-)

Happy Christmas 2016!

A cool Christmassy bauble :D

Happy (belated) Christmas! I hope you have a great Christmas holiday. I was going to have a small something ready for yesterday, but I haven't managed to get it ready in time, so it'll be for new year instead :-)

Developing and Running C# Programs on Linux

Recently I was asked about running C# on Linux, and I remembered that I haven't actually written a blog post on it! This is that blog post I never wrote: A beginner's guide on how to develop, compile, and run C# programs on Linux. Here I assume a debian-based system (specifically Ubuntu 16.04), but it can be just as easily adapted to work with other flavours.

To start off, you'll need to add the mono repository to your system's apt repository list. Taken from the official mono website, here are the commands to do that:

sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys 3FA7E0328081BFF6A14DA29AA6A19B38D3D831EF
echo "deb wheezy main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mono-xamarin.list
sudo apt update

The more experienced may notice that although I'm installing on a, Ubuntu 16.04 system, I'm still specifying wheezy when installing mono. This shouldn't make too much of a difference - currently mono only supports wheezy upon install.

Next, it's time to actually install mono itself. This is easy:

sudo apt install mono-mcs

The above ought to install the mono runtime and compiler. If you experience issues down the line, simply install the mono-complete package instead.With this installed, you should now be able to launch compiled programs written C♯ by double-clicking them in your file manager - without any modifications. C♯ programs compiled on Windows can be run on Linux, and vice versa (this is because C♯ actually compiled into something called the Common Intermediate Language, or CIL).

If you're on a server, then you can run your programs by prefixing the executable name with mono, like this:

mono program-of-awesomeness.exe

If your program crashes, however, the output is not very helpful at all. Thankfully though there's a way to remedy that. First, make sure your program is compiled in debug mode, and then add the --debug flag when running your program:

mono --debug another-awesome-program.exe

This is all very well, but what about compiling? That's relatively easy as well. mcs is the linux version of csc on Windows, and behaves almost identically with some minor syntactical changes (read up about it by typing mcs --help or man mcs). For Visual Studio solutions, there's xbuild. Xbuild is a new-ish build too for Linux that is capable of compiling almost any Visual Studio solution file without any modifications (though there are some undocumented difficulties that you might run into as an advanced user).

To use it, first install the mono-xbuild package (sudo apt install mono-xbuild), and then, in a terminal, cd into the directory that contains the solution you want to compile, and then type xbuild and hit enter. That's it!

All this work in the terminal is cool for running C♯ programs on GUI-less boxes and servers, but it's no way to develop a larger application. Thankfully, there's a solution to that too! Monodevelop is the best C♯ IDE out there at the moment - it's like Visual Studio for LInux. It's easy to install, too - simply install the monodevelop package (sudo apt install monodevelop).


(Above: Monodevelop running on my Linux laptop. The project open here is my sprite packing tool.)

The package in the official repositories should be good enough for general use (though it's probably out of date). For the latest version with all the latest features though, you'll have to compile it from source.

Sadly this is not a trivial process. To do it you need to be comfortable with the terminal and know your way reasonably well around a Linux system. If you still want to go ahead anyway, start by downloading the latest release and follow the instructions. You'll probably find it keeps complaining about things not existing - usually a quick apt search {thing} reveals which package you need to install in order to get it to work. If you have trouble, post a comment below and I'll try to help you out.

Even without compiling monodevelop from source, it's still a pretty good IDE. It lets you create Visual-Studio-compatible solution files, and compile your code on the fly at the touch of a button.

That just about covers the basics of running C♯ on Linux. If there's anything I've missed or you'd like to ask about, post a comment below!

I've got some business cards!

My new business cards!

I've been to several events of various natures now (like the Hardware Meetup), and at each one I've found that a 'business card' or two would be really handy to give to people so that they can remember the address of this website.

After fiddling with the design over about a week I (and Mythdael!) came up with the design you see above. Personally, I'm really pleased with them, so I decided to post here to show them off :-)

I'm finding that it's a rather good idea to promote and build your brand at these kind of events by showing people the cool things that you've created and learnt, and business cards seem to be just the thing that helps you do it.

A close up of the front and back of my new business cards.

How to run a successful blog: My experiences so far

About 2 and a half years (and 207 posts!) ago today, I took the advice of Rob Miles and started this blog. I've learned a lot since I started from some wonderful people, and the quality of my posts on here has improved immensely. I've been meaning to write a post on what I've learnt about running this blog, but haven't gotten around to it until now :-)

The first, and most important, thing you can do is to post often. By posting often you keep people coming back to read more. If you leave it too long between posts, people may forget about your blog and may not come back.

Of course, while having regular content is good, having a posting schedule is considered by some to be even better. While I'm not particularly good at this yet, if you do manage to achieve it you can ensure that people know when they can come back and expect another post.

It's also important that you post about something you find interesting. Doing so improves the quality of the post, and it makes for a much more interesting read. If you're passionate about what you're writing about, people will generally come back for more.

Next, blogging is something that you have to persevere with. You certainly won't acquire readers overnight. It's worth bearing in mind that most of your readers will be silent - only a very small proportion of readers will actually leave a comment, no matter how easy you make the process (I hardly ever get comments).

Also, don't set out with the goal of getting $x$ number of regular readers, or earning $y$ amount of money. They are bad motivators to have, and you will surely be disappointed. Rather, you should set out to just write about something you love, without expecting anyone to read what you've written. Then you'll be pleasantly surprised :D

That's all I can think of right now. There are surely other things that I haven't mentioned. If you have any tips you've learnt from running a blog of your own, post about them in the comments :D

My PixelBot is Connected! (Part 1)

After many attempts and solving many problems, I've finally gotten my Wemos-powered PixelBot to connect via TCP to a C# server component I've written. Since I experienced so many problems with it, I decided to post about it here to help others who want to do the same as I.

The first (and arguably most difficult) hurdle I came across was the lack of correct information. For one, the TCP client class is actually called WifiClient (which is confusing in and of itself). For another, there aren't any really good tutorials out there that show you what to do.

In addition, I wanted to build a (rather complicated as it turns out!) auto discovery system to allow my PixelBot to find the PixelHub (the server) automatically. As usual, there was even less information about this task! All I found was an outdated guide and rather simplistic example. I ended up inspecting the header file of the WiFiUDP class in order to figure it out.

In this post, I'm going to explain how I got the autodiscovery mechanism working. Before we begin, you need to understand what multicast UDP is and how it works. For those of you who don't, I've posted all about it.

There are several ways that one can go about writing an autodiscovery mechanism. While Rob Miles chose mDNS, I ended up approaching the problem from a different angle and writing my own protocol. It's best explained with a diagram:

A diagram explaining the PixelBot's autodiscovery mechanism.

  1. The PixelHub server has a beacon that sends out pings to tell the PixelBots where it is
  2. The PixelBots subscribe to the beacon ping channel when they want to find the server
  3. The PixelBots decode the incoming ping packets to find the discover of the server
  4. The PixelBots connect to the PixelHub server using the credentials that it found in the beacon pings it decoded!

In order to receive these beacon pings, we need to set up a UDP listener and wire it up to receive multicast packets. In the following example I'm multicasting on on port 5050.

IPAddress beaconAddress = IPAddress(239, 62, 148, 30);
unsigned int beaconPort = 5050;

WiFiUDP UdpClient;
UdpClient.beginMulticast(WiFi.localIP(), beaconAddress, beaconPort);

After connecting to the multicast address, we then need to receive the pings:

// Create a buffer to hold the message 
byte datagramBuffer[datagramBufferSize];
// Prefill the datagram buffer with zeros for protection later
memset(datagramBuffer, '\0', datagramBufferSize);
while(true) {
    int datagramSize = UdpClient.parsePacket();
    Serial.print("Received datagram #");
    Serial.print(" bytes in size from ");

    // Don't overflow the message buffer!
    if(datagramSize > datagramBufferSize) {
        Serial.println(", but the message is larger than the datagram buffer size.");
    // Read the message in now that we've verified that it won't blow our buffer up, datagramSize);

    // Cheat and cast the datagram to a character array
    char* datagramStr = (char*)datagramBuffer;


That's rather complicated for such a simple task! Anyway, now we've got our beacon ping into a character array, we can start to pick it apart. Before we do, here's what my beacon pings look like:

  ^        ^        ^
 Role IP Address   Port

Although it looks simple, in C++ (the language of the arduino) it's rather a pain. Here's what I came up with:

// Define the role of the remote server that we're looking for
char desiredRemoteRole[7] = { 's', 'e', 'r', 'v', 'e', 'r', '\0' };

// Find the positions of the key characters
int atPos = findChar(datagramStr, '@');
int colonPos = findChar(datagramStr, ':');

// Create some variables to store things in
char role[7];
char serverIp[16];
char serverPortText[7];
int serverPort = -1;
// Fill everything with zeroes to protect ourselves
memset(role, '\0', 7);
memset(serverIp, '\0', 16);
memset(serverPortText, '\0', 7);
// Extract the parts of the 
strncpy(role, datagramStr, atPos);
strncpy(serverIp, datagramStr + atPos + 1, colonPos - atPos - 1);
strncpy(serverPortText, datagramStr + colonPos + 1, datagramSize - colonPos - 1);


// Print everything out to the serial console
Serial.print("atPos: "); Serial.println(atPos);
Serial.print("colonPos: "); Serial.println(colonPos);

Serial.print("Role: "); Serial.print(role); Serial.print(" ");
Serial.print("Remote IP: "); Serial.print(serverIp); Serial.print(" ");
Serial.print("Port number: "); Serial.print(serverPortText);

// If the advertiser isn't playing the role of a server, then we're not interested
if(strcmp(role, desiredRemoteRole) != 0)
    Serial.print("Incompatible role "); Serial.print(role); Serial.println(".");
Serial.println("Role ok!");
serverPort = atoi(serverPortText);

Phew! That's a lot of code! I've tried to annotate it the best I can. The important variables in the are serverIp the serverPort - they hold the IP address and the port number of the remote machine that we want to connect to.

I hope that's somewhat helpful. If there's anything you don't understand or need help with, please post a comment down below :-)

Next time, I'm going to show off the TCP connection bit of the system. Stay tuned :D

Pepperminty Wiki Turns 2!

Pepperminty Wiki turns 2(!) :D

2 years ago today, I decided that I'd build a wiki. At the time, I was unsatisfied with all the currently solutions out there - they were either too bulky, old and unmaintained, or just otherwise not quite right. I decided to build something different: An entire wiki in a single file. One single file that you can drop onto your web server and have it just work.

Although I've had to rework and rewrite a few things along the way, development has generally gone ok. I've found that as it's grown, I've needed to change the way I design it slightly - it's been a great learning experience!

In May this year, I managed to get Pepperminty Wiki into Awesome Self Hosted, a list of cool pieces of software that you can host on your own server - a list that has ~12,000 stars on GitHub.

Fast forward to the present, and I find myself with an awesome wiki - that's still all contained in a single file. It's powered by Parsedown. It supports multiple users, page protection, sub pages, full text search (!), customisable themes, tags, redirects, and more! It's also got a whole host of configurable settings system - allowing you to customise how your wiki works to your liking. Best of all, it's got a flexible module based system - so anyone can come along and write a new module to extend it's functionality.

If this sounds like the kind of thing you'd like to use yourself, just head over to the getting your own copy section on it's page (for the lazy, the online downloader is here).

Going forwards, I'd like to a commenting system to let people comment on pages on a wiki. I'd like to add edit previews. I'd like to add a GUI for the settings file. I've got so many ideas that it's difficult to choose which to do next :D

Thank you, everyone for the last 2 years. Here's to another 2 amazing fun filled years! I don't intend to stop development any time soon :D

Art by Mythdael